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Chapter: Computer Architecture : Memory and I/O Systems

Memory Hierarchy

The fastest access is to data held in processor registers.



The entire computer memory can be viewed as the hierarchy depicted in Figure 4.13. The fastest access is to data held in processor registers. Therefore, if we consider the registers to be part of the memory hierarchy, then the processor registers are at the top in terms of the speed of access. The registers provide only a minuscule portion of the required memory.


At the next level of the hierarchy is a relatively small amount of memory that can be implemented directly on the processor chip. This memory, called a processor cache, holds copies of instructions and data stored in a much larger memory that is provided externally. There are often two levels of caches.


A primary cache is always located on the processor chip. This cache is small because it competes for space on the processor chip, which must implement many other functions. The primary cache is referred to as level (L1) cache. A larger, secondary cache is placed between the primary cache and the rest of the memory. It is referred to as level 2 (L2) cache. It is usually implemented using SRAM chips. It is possible to have both Ll and L2 caches on the processor chip.


The next level in the hierarchy is called the main memory. This rather large memory is implemented using dynamic memory components, typically in the form of SIMMs, DIMMs, or RIMMs. The main memory is much larger but significantly slower than the cache memory. In a typical computer, the access time for the main memory is about ten times longer than the access time for the L 1 cache.


Disk devices provide a huge amount of inexpensive storage. They are very slow compared to the semiconductor devices used to implement the main memory. A hard disk drive (HDD; also hard drive, hard disk, magnetic disk or disk drive) is a device for storing and retrieving digital information, primarily computer data. It consists of one or more rigid (hence "hard") rapidly rotating discs (often referred to as platters), coated with magnetic material and with magnetic heads arranged to write data to the surfaces and read it from them.


During program execution, the speed of memory access is of utmost importance. The key to managing the operation of the hierarchical memory system in is to bring the instructions and data that will be used in the near future as close to the processor as possible. This can be done by using the hardware mechanisms.

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