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Chapter: Data Warehousing and Data Mining

Mapping the data warehouse architecture to Multiprocessor architecture

Linear Speed up: refers the ability to increase the number of processor to reduce response time Linear Scale up: refers the ability to provide same performance on the same requests as the database size increases

Mapping the data warehouse architecture to Multiprocessor architecture


1.Relational data base technology for data warehouse


Linear Speed up: refers the ability to increase the number of processor to reduce response time Linear Scale up: refers the ability to provide same performance on the same requests as the database size increases


1.1. Types of parallelism


Inter query Parallelism: In which different server threads or processes handle multiple requests at the same time.

Intra query Parallelism: This form of parallelism decomposes the serial SQL query into


lower level operations such as scan, join, sort etc. Then these lower level operations are executed concurrently in parallel.


Intra query parallelism can be done in either of two ways:


Horizontal parallelism: which means that the data base is partitioned across multiple disks and parallel processing occurs within a specific task that is performed concurrently on different processors against different set of data


Vertical parallelism: This occurs among different tasks. All query components such as scan, join, sort etc are executed in parallel in a pipelined fashion. In other words, an output from one task becomes an input into another task.



1.2 Data partitioning:


Data partitioning is the key component for effective parallel execution of data base operations. Partition can be done randomly or intelligently.


Random portioning:


Includes random data striping across multiple disks on a single server.


Another option for random portioning is round robin fashion partitioning in which each record is placed on the next disk assigned to the data base.

Intelligent partitioning:


Assumes that DBMS knows where a specific record is located and does not waste time searching for it across all disks. The various intelligent partitioning include:


Hash partitioning: A hash algorithm is used to calculate the partition number based on the value of the partitioning key for each row


Key range partitioning: Rows are placed and located in the partitions according to the value of the partitioning key. That is all the rows with the key value from A to K are in partition 1, L to T are in partition 2 and so on.


Schema portioning: an entire table is placed on one disk; another table is placed on different disk etc. This is useful for small reference tables.


User defined portioning: It allows a table to be partitioned on the basis of a user defined expression.


 2. Data base architectures of parallel processing

There are three DBMS software architecture styles for parallel processing:


Shared memory or shared everything Architecture

Shared disk architecture

Shred nothing architecture


2.1 Shared Memory Architecture:


Tightly coupled shared memory systems, illustrated in following figure have the following characteristics:


Multiple PUs share memory.

Each PU has full access to all shared memory through a common bus.

Communication between nodes occurs via shared memory.

Performance is limited by the bandwidth of the memory bus.

It is simple to implement and provide a single system image, implementing an RDBMS on

SMP(symmetric multiprocessor)

A disadvantage of shared memory systems for parallel processing is as follows:

Scalability is limited by bus bandwidth and latency, and by available memory.


2.2 Shared Disk Architecture


Shared disk systems are typically loosely coupled. Such systems, illustrated in following figure, have the following characteristics:


Each node consists of one or more PUs and associated memory.

Memory is not shared between nodes.

Communication occurs over a common high-speed bus.

Each node has access to the same disks and other resources.

A node can be an SMP if the hardware supports it.

Bandwidth of the high-speed bus limits the number of nodes (scalability) of the system.

. The Distributed Lock Manager (DLM ) is required.

Parallel processing advantages of shared disk systems are as follows:

Shared disk systems permit high availability. All data is accessible even if one node dies.


These systems have the concept of one database, which is an advantage over shared nothing systems.


Shared disk systems provide for incremental growth.

Parallel processing disadvantages of shared disk systems are these:


Inter-node synchronization is required, involving DLM overhead and greater dependency on high-speed interconnect.


If the workload is not partitioned well, there may be high synchronization overhead.

2.3 Shared Nothing Architecture


Shared nothing systems are typically loosely coupled. In shared nothing systems only one CPU is connected to a given disk. If a table or database is located on that disk


Shared nothing systems are concerned with access to disks, not access to memory.

Adding more PUs and disks can improve scale up.

Shared nothing systems have advantages and disadvantages for parallel processing:



Shared nothing systems provide for incremental growth.

System growth is practically unlimited.


MPPs are good for read-only databases and decision support applications.

Failure is local: if one node fails, the others stay up.



More coordination is required.

More overhead is required for a process working on a disk belonging to another node.


If there is a heavy workload of updates or inserts, as in an online transaction processing system, it may be worthwhile to consider data-dependent routing to alleviate contention.



These Requirements include

Support for function shipping


Parallel join strategies


Support for data repartitioning


Query compilation


Support for database transactions


Support for the single system image of the database environment


Combined architecture

Interserver parallelism: each query is parallelized across multiple servers


Interaserver parallelism: the query is parallelized with in a server


The combined architecture supports inter server parallelism of distributed memory MPPs and cluster and interserver parallelism of SMP nodes


3. Parallel DBMS features


Scope and techniques of parallel DBMS operations   Optimizer implementation


Application transparency


Parallel environment: which allows the DBMS server to take full advantage of the existing facilities on a very low level?


DBMS management tools: help to configure, tune, admin and monitor a parallel RDBMS as effectively as if it were a serial RDBMS


Price / Performance: The parallel RDBMS can demonstrate a non linear speed up and scale up at reasonable costs.


4. Alternative technologies

For improving performance in dw environment includes


Advanced database indexing products


Multidimensional databases


Specialized RDBMS


Advance indexing techniques REFER --SYSBASE IQ


5. Parallel DBMS Vendors


Oracle: support parallel database processing

Architecture: virtual shared disk capability


Data partitioning: oracle 7 supports random stripping


Parallel operations: oracle may execute all queries serially


Informix: it support full parallelism.

Architecture: it support shared memory, shared disk and shared nothing architecture.


Data partitioning: Informix online 7 supports round-robin, schema, hash, key range partitioning.


Parallel operations: online 7 execute queries INSERT and many utilities in parallel release add parallel UPDATE and DELETE.


IBM: it is a parallel client/server database product-DB2-E (parallel edition).

Architecture: it is shared nothing architecture.


Data partitioning: hash partitioning.


Parallel operations: INSERT, INDEX, CREATION are full parallelized.


SYBASE: it implemented its parallel DBMS functionality in a product called SYBASE MPP (SYBSE+NCR).


Architecture: SYBASE MPP –shared nothing architecture.


Data partitioning: SYBASE MPP-key range, schema partitioning.


Parallel operations: SYBASE MPP-horizontal parallelism, but vertical parallelism support in limited


Other RDBMS products

NCR Teradata


Tandem Nonstop SQL/MP


7. Specialized database products

Red Brick Systems


White Cross System ins

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