Home | | Data Ware Housing and Data Mining | Major Issues in Data Mining

Chapter: Data Warehousing and Data Mining

Major Issues in Data Mining

The scope of this book addresses major issues in data mining regarding mining methodology, user interaction, performance, and diverse data types.

Major Issues In Data Mining


The scope of this book addresses major issues in data mining regarding mining methodology, user interaction, performance, and diverse data types. These issues are introduced below:


1. Mining methodology and user-interaction issues. These reect the kinds of knowledge mined, the ability to mine knowledge at multiple granularities, the use of domain knowledge, ad-hoc mining, and knowledge visualization.


Mining different kinds of knowledge in databases.


Since different users can be interested in different kinds of knowledge, data mining should cover a wide spectrum of data analysis and knowledge discovery tasks, including data characterization, discrimination, association, classification, clustering, trend and deviation analysis, and similarity analysis. These tasks may use the same database in different ways and require the development of numerous data mining techniques.


Interactive mining of knowledge at multiple levels of abstraction.


Since it is difficult to know exactly what can be discovered within a database, the data mining process should be interactive. For databases containing a huge amount of data, appropriate sampling technique can first be applied to facilitate interactive data exploration. Interactive mining allows users to focus the search for patterns, providing and refining data mining requests based on returned results. Specifically, knowledge should be mined by drilling-down, rolling-up, and pivoting through the data space and knowledge space interactively, similar to what OLAP can do on data cubes. In this way, the user can interact with the data mining system to view data and discovered patterns at multiple granularities and from different angles.


Incorporation of background knowledge.


Background knowledge, or information regarding the domain under study, may be used to guide the discovery process and allow discovered patterns to be expressed in concise terms and at different levels of abstraction. Domain knowledge related to databases, such as integrity constraints and deduction rules, can help focus and speed up a data mining process, or judge the interestingness of discovered patterns.


Data mining query languages and ad-hoc data mining.


Relational query languages (such as SQL) allow users to pose ad-hoc queries for data retrieval. In a similar vein, high-level data mining query languages need to be developed to allow users to describe ad-hoc data mining tasks by facilitating the speci_cation of the relevant sets of data for analysis, the domain knowledge, the kinds of knowledge to be mined, and the conditions and interestingness constraints to be enforced on the discovered patterns. Such a language should be integrated with a database or data warehouse query language, and optimized for e_cient and exible data mining.


Presentation and visualization of data mining results.


Discovered knowledge should be expressed in high-level languages, visual representations, or other expressive forms so that the knowledge can be easily understood and directly usable by humans. This is especially crucial if the data mining system is to be interactive. This requires the system to adopt expressive knowledge representation techniques, such as trees, tables, rules, graphs, charts, crosstabs, matrices, or curves.


Handling outlier or incomplete data.


The data stored in a database may reect outliers | noise, exceptional cases, or incomplete data objects. These objects may confuse the analysis process, causing over_tting of the data to the knowledge modelconstructed. As a result, the accuracy of the discovered patterns can be poor. Data cleaning methods and data analysis methods which can handle outliers are required. While most methods discard outlier data, such data may be of interest in itself such as in fraud detection for Finding unusual usage of tele-communication services or credit cards. This form of data analysis is known as outlier mining.


Pattern evaluation: the interestingness problem.


A data mining system can uncover thousands of patterns. Many of the patterns discovered may be uninteresting to the given user, representing common knowledge or lacking novelty. Several challenges remain regarding the development of techniques to assess the interestingness of discovered patterns, particularly with regard to subjective measures which estimate the value of patterns with respect to a given user class, based on user beliefs or expectations. The use of interestingness measures to guide the discovery process and reduce the search space is another active area of research.


2. Performance issues. These include efficiency, scalability, and parallelization of data mining algorithms.


Efficiency and scalability of data mining algorithms.


To effectively extract information from a huge amount of data in databases, data mining algorithms must be efficient and scalable. That is, the running time of a data mining algorithm must be predictable and acceptable in large databases. Algorithms with exponential or even medium-order polynomial complexity will not be of practical use. From a database perspective on knowledge discovery, efficiency and scalability are key issues in the implementation of data mining systems. Many of the issues discussed above under mining methodology and user-interaction must also consider efficiency and scalability.


Parallel, distributed, and incremental updating algorithms.


The huge size of many databases, the wide distribution of data, and the computational complexity of some data mining methods are factors motivating the development of parallel and distributed data mining algorithms. Such algorithms divide the data into partitions, which are processed in parallel. The results from the partitions are then merged. Moreover, the high cost of some data mining processes promotes the need for incremental data mining algorithms which incorporate database updates without having to mine the entire data again \from scratch". Such algorithms perform knowledge modification incrementally to amend and strengthen what was previously discovered.


3. Issues relating to the diversity of database types. 

Handling of relational and complex types of data.


There are many kinds of data stored in databases and data warehouses. Since relational databases and data warehouses are widely used, the development of efficient and effective data mining systems for such data is important. However, other databases may contain complex data objects, hypertext and multimedia data, spatial data, temporal data, or transaction data. It is unrealistic to expect one system to mine all kinds of data due to the diversity of data types and different goals of data mining. Specific data mining systems should be constructed for mining specific kinds of data. Therefore, one may expect to have different data mining systems for different kinds of data.


Mining information from heterogeneous databases and global information systems.


Local and wide-area computer networks (such as the Internet) connect many sources of data, forming huge, distributed, and heterogeneous databases. The discovery of knowledge from di_erent sources of structured, semi-structured, or unstructured data with diverse data semantics poses great challenges to data mining. Data mining may help disclose high-level data regularities in multiple heterogeneous databases that are unlikely to be discovered by simple query systems and may improve information exchange and interoperability in heterogeneous databases.

Study Material, Lecturing Notes, Assignment, Reference, Wiki description explanation, brief detail
Data Warehousing and Data Mining : Major Issues in Data Mining |

Privacy Policy, Terms and Conditions, DMCA Policy and Compliant

Copyright © 2018-2024 BrainKart.com; All Rights Reserved. Developed by Therithal info, Chennai.