Kamaraj Era (1954-1963)
Kamaraj abolished the Modified Scheme of Elementary Education, increased manifold the number of schools, built a number of dams for improving irrigation, provided more industrial estates and ensured astonishing industrial growth in the state. He made education more accessible to poor and rural children.
Kamaraj also introduced the noon-meal scheme for school children.
In 1963, Kamaraj resigned (Kamaraj Plan) his chief ministership to become the President of Indian National Congress and M.Bhaktavatchalam took over the reins of the government. The Food shortage and anti-hindi agitation caused the un-popularity of his ministry.
In the general elections of 1967, the congress party was defeated. The Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam formed the government.
The provision of affordable universal housing for poor, precursor to food security (Rice scheme) and establishment of Slum Clearance Board have substantially improved and received support among the urban poor people also. Significantly, the government renamed the State from Madras to Tamil Nadu in the year 1969. The other major achievements of the party were:
A. Nationalisation of Bus routes larger than 75 miles.
B. Waiver of Tuition fee for poor students of all castes in pre-University and pre-technical courses.
C. Second World Tamil Conference was organised.
D. Supply of subsidised rice for people of Tamil Nadu.