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It comprises the skin and its appendages which protects the body from various kinds of damages such as loss of water or damages from outside.
· Finger and toe nails
· Sebaceous glands
· Sweat glands
The human skin is the outer covering of the body and is the largest organ of the integumentary system. The main functions are protection, regulation and sensation.
The skin has the following layers from exterior to the inner layer.
· The epidermis
· The dermis
· The hypodermis (subcutaneous layer)
The epidermis is a vascular (without blood vessels); the skin contains keratin which protects and prevents the skin from becoming water logged.
The dermis, the middle layer of the skin, contains blood vessels, gives the skin its elasticity to stretch.
The hypodermis, the subcutaneous layer, stores fat that are ready for use when energy is needed. This layer of skin fat also maintains body temperature by serving as an insulator.
Hair keeps the body warm. Hair covers the majority of the body surface; thick hair is found on the head and face and fine hair is found on other parts of the body such as the pubic area. Hair has a follicle below the skin, and a shaft above the skin. Hair contains keratin.
Sebaceous glands are exocrine glands. It lubricate and moisturize the skin with an oily secretion which is called as sebum and maintains thermoregulation.
The finger and toe nails are made of keratin. Nails protect the tips of our fingers and toes from injury.
Three parts of the nail are:
· Nail bed
· Nail matrix
· Nail plate
Sweat glands are exocrine and apocrine glands that secretes sweat to the surface of the skin. They are found under the arms in the axillary area and perform little function in humans. Sweat glands, are exocrine glands secrete a substance that cools the body off with perspiration and eliminate wastes.
• Athlete’s foot
• Pressure ulcers
• Skin cancer
· Protects the body against the external environment as the first line of defence from germs and infections.
· The skin, its thickness and sweat glands, maintain the body temperature
· Vitamin D production
· Protection against UV rays
· Reception of tactile sensory messages such as heat, cold, and pain sensations.
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