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Chapter: 11th 12th std standard Geography earth space Higher secondary school College Notes

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Indian Polity (1947 - 2000)

India's first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru was considered the architect of modern India. He consolidated the Indian Independence by forging national unity, nurturing democratic institutions, promoting science and technology, planning for economic development and by following independent foreign policy.

Indian Polity (1947 - 2000)

India's first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru was considered the architect of modern India. He consolidated the Indian Independence by forging national unity, nurturing democratic institutions, promoting science and technology, planning for economic development and by following independent foreign policy. He was truly a nation builder. He died in 1964.

Lal Bahadur Sastri succeeded Nehru as the next Prime Minister of India. He remained a role model for honesty in public life. He ended the Indo-Pak war of 1965 by concluding the Tashkent Agreement in January 1966. His untimely death was a great loss to the nation.

Indira Gandhi, daughter of Nehru became Prime Minister in 1966 and bravely faced the domestic challenges such as scarcity of food and foreign pressures during the 1971 Bangladesh crisis. When opposition to her rule gathered momentum in 1975, she brought emergency rule, a black mark in the democratic tradition of India. However, she restored democratic rule by announcing general elections in 1977 in which she was defeated. Later in 1980 she was able to regain power by democratic means. In 1983 she undertook 'Blue Star Operation' in the Golden Temple at Amritsar - Punjab. As a result, unfortunately, she was shot dead by her own bodyguards in 1984 as a vengeance to her policy towards Punjab militancy.

The Janata Party rule for brief period between 1977 and 1980 brought Morarji Desai as Prime Minister of India. For the first time a non-Congress ministry was formed after independence. The lack of unity among the Janata leaders had resulted in the fall of the Janata Government.

Rajiv Gandhi became the Prime Minister of India in 1984 after her mother Indira Gandhi's assassination. He introduced New Education Policy and encouraged foreign investment. In 1987 he sent the Indian Peace Keeping Force to Sri Lanka with a view to put an end to the ethnic violence. He continued as Prime Minister till the next elections held in 1989. Later in May 1991, he was assassinated (by the Sri Lankan Tamil extremists).

V.P. Singh was the Prime Minister between 1989 and 1991. He was leading an anti-Congress coalition called the Janata Dal. During his tenure he decided to implement the Mandal Commission Report which provided reservation for other backward classes. His government was marked by factionalism, and he was forced to resign in 1990. V.P. SINGH The next Prime Minister Chandrasekhar held the office from November 1990 to March 1991.

In June 1991 P. V. Narasimha Rao became Prime Minister. He moved decisively toward new economic reforms, reducing the government's economic role, instituting austerity measures, and encouraging foreign investment. The finance minister Dr. Manmohan Singh's role in this sphere is worth noting. As a result, India started moving towards liberalization, privatization and globalization.

After the elections of 1996, Atal Bihari Vajpayee became Prime Minister from the BJP party but he was not able to prove majority in the Parliament. Deve Gowda formed a coalition government. He was the eleventh Prime Minister of India (1996- 1997). He was from the state of Karnataka. His government also fell due to the no confidence motion voted jointly by the Congress and the BJP. He was succeeded by I.K. Gujral for a brief period in 1997. Atal Bihari Vajpayee became the Prime Minister of India in 1998. In the 1999 elections the National Democratic Alliance under the leadership of Vajpayee formed the government. His period witnessed two important events. One was the Kargil War with Pakistan and another was the nuclear tests at Pokhran.

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