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Chapter: Mechanical : Total Quality Management (TQM) : Quality Systems

Important Questions and Answers: Quality Systems

Mechanical - Total Quality Management (TQM) - Quality Systems

1.  Why do we need a Quality system?


In order to assure the quality of a product, the manufacturer must ensure its quality. So, to ensure this quality it is necessary to make a systematic study and control check at every stage of production. It is also essential to take critical review of efforts and achievements of the company with respect to the quality of the product. Thus it is necessary to develop a standard quality system.


2.  What do you mean by ISO 9000 quality standard?


The ISO 9000 system is a quality management system that can be adopted by all types of organizations belonging to government, public, private, (or) joint sectors.


The ISO 9000 system shows the way in creating products by preventing deficiencies, instead of conducting expensive post product inspections and rework.


3.  What is two party quality system?


In two party quality system, the supplier of the product (or) service would develop a quality system that would conform to his standard. The customer would then audit this system for acceptability. Here the supplier and customer form the two parties.


4.  What is a third party registration system?


In two party registration system after auditing, it may be found that the customer’s quality requirements are not met. In order to avoid this and also the cost incurred in multiple audits, a standard quality system must be developed and audited by a third party registration system.


5.  Name some third party registration system?


The ISO 9000, QS 9000, ISO 14000 and other quality systems are such third party registration systems that indicate to customers (or) potential customers that the suppliers has a quality system in place and it is being monitored.


6.  Define quality auditing?


The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) defines an audit as a systematic and independent examination to determine whether quality activities and related results comply with planned arrangements and whether these arrangements are implemented effectively and suitable to achieve objects.


7.  What is the two type’s quality audit?


Quality audit can be classified into two types internal and external audit.


8. What do you mean by external and internal audit?

An internal audit is conducted by personnel within the organization.


An external audit is conducted by people from the organization such as the purchasing party (second party audit ) (or) a certified auditing agency (third party audit).


9. How can Quality audit be classified on the basis of the area taken into account for the audit?


         System Audit


         Process Audit


         Product Audit


         Adequacy Audit


         Compliance Audit


10.            What is the use of QS 9000?


The QS 9000 standard defines the fundamental quality expectations from the suppliers of production and service parts. The QS 9000 standard uses ISO 9000 as its base with much broader requirements.


11. What is the use of ISO 14000 standard?


ISO 14000 standard gives the company a background on which to base its Environmental Management System (EMS). This system can be joined with other quality standards and can be implemented together to achieve the organizations environmental targets.


The overall aim of the system is to provide protection to environment and to prevent pollution.


12.What are the other quality systems?


The other quality systems are AS 9100 used in aerospace industry, ISO/TS

16949, which is called as Quality Systems Automotive Suppliers Particular Requirements for the application of ISO 9001, TS 9000 a consolidation of the various quality system requirements within telecommunications industry , QS 9000 and ISO 14000. Out of these Qs 9000 uses ISO 9000 as its foundation.But its requirements are much broader.



13.What is a quality manual?


A quality manual is to be established and maintained.It should include:


1.The scope of the QMS with details and justification for any exclusions. 2.The documented procedure or references to them.


3.A description of the interaction among the QMS processes.


14.What are the essential qualities of a auditor?


An auditor should be adequately qualified and competent to perform quality audit.He should have received training in auditing principles and processes.To be able to audit efficiently , the auditor should possess the ability to concentrate on the task entrusted and not distracted by other activities that are taking place at the same time.He should be objective , honest and impartial.


15.What are the strengths of ISO 14000?


One of the greatest strengths of ISO 14000 is that it establishes a process that spreads responsibility and participation to every individual of the organization. It teaches employees the effect on the environment of their own work duties, how these can be minimized, what the benefits can be and what negative consequences can be if responsibilities are ignored.


ISO 8204 for quality

 ―Totality of characteristics of an entity that bears on its ability to satisfy stated and  implied needs.   This means that the Software product delivered should be as per the  requirements  defined.  We  now  examine  a  few  more  terms used  in  association  with  Software Quality. Quality Planning: In the Planning Process we determine the standards   ‖   that are relevant for the Software Product, the Organization and the means to achieve  them. Quality Assurance : Once the standards are defined and we start building the  product. It is very important to have processes that evaluate the project performance and  aim to assure that the Quality standards are being followed and the final product will be in compliance. Quality Control: Once the software components are built the results are monitored to determine if they comply with the standards. The data collected helps in measuring the performance trends and as needed help in identifying defective pieces of code. Software Quality Management : Software Quality Management simply stated comprises of processes that ensure that the Software Project would reach its goals. In other words the Software Project would meet the clients expectations.


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