1. Define Isotopes?
Those pairs of atoms which have the same atomic number and hence similar chemical properties but different atomic mass number are called isotopes.
2. Define Isobars?
Those atoms which have the same mass number but different atomic numbers are called isobars. Obviously, these atoms belong to different chemical elements.
3. Define Isomers?
Those pairs of atoms (nuclides) which have the same atomic number and atomic mass number but have different radioactive properties are called isomers and their existence is referred to as nuclear isomerism.
4. Define isotones?
Those atoms whose nuclei have the same number of neutrons are called isotones.
5. Define Radioactivity?
The phenomenon of spontaneous emission of powerful radiations exhibited by heavy element is called radioactivity. The radioactivity may be natural or artificial.
6. Write the types of Nuclear radiations?
The five types of nuclear radiations are :
(i) Gamma rays (or photons) : electromagnetic radiation.
(ii)Neutrons : uncharged particles, mass approximately 1.
(iii) Protons : + 1 charged particles, mass approximately 1.
(iv) Alpha particles : helium nuclei, charge + 2, mass 4.
(v) Beta particles : electrons (charge –1), positrons (charge + 1), mass very small.
7. Define Fertile Materials?
It has been found that some materials are not fissionable by themselves but they can be converted to the fissionable materials, these are known as fertile materials.
8. Define Fission?
Fission is the process that occurs when a neutron collides with the nucleus of certain of heavy atoms, causing the original nucleus to split into two or more unequal fragments which carry-off most of the energy of fission as kinetic energy. This process is accompanied by the emission of neutrons and gamma rays.
9. Define chain reaction?
A chain reaction is that process in which the number of neutrons keeps on multiplying rapidly (in geometrical progression) during fission till whole the fissionable material is disintegrated. The multiplication or reproduction factor (K) is given by:
K = No. of neutrons in any particular generation / No. of neutrons in the preceding generation
If K > 1, chain reaction will continue and if K < 1, chain reaction cannot be maintained.
10. Define Nuclear fusion?
Nuclear fusion is the process of combining or fusing two lighter nuclei into a stable and heavier nuclide. In this case large amount of energy is released because mass of the product nucleus is less than the masses of the two nuclei which are fused.
11. Define Nuclear Reactor?
A nuclear reactor is an apparatus in which nuclear fission is produced is the form of a controlled self-sustaining chain reaction.
12. Write the Essential components of a nuclear reactor?
Essential components of a nuclear reactor are:
(i) Reactor core
(iii) Control mechanism
(vi) Measuring instruments
13. What are the main components of a nuclear power plant?
The main components of a nuclear power plant are:
(i) Nuclear reactor
(ii) Heat exchanger (steam generator)
(iii) Steam turbine
(v) Electric generator
14. Mention some important reactors?
Some important reactors are :
(i) Pressurized water reactor (PWR)
(ii)Boiling water reactor (BWR)
(iii) Gas-cooled reactor
(iv) Liquid metal-cooled reactor
(v) Breeder reactor.
15. What are the factors are consider to selecting the site for Nuclear power plant?
Following factors should be considered while selecting the site for a nuclear power plant:
(i) Proximity to load centre
(iii) Land use
16.Write the types of Reactors?
1. On the basis of neutron energy.
2. On the basis of fuel used.
3. On the basis of Moderate used.
4. On the basis of coolent used.
17. What are the advantages of nuclear power plant?
1. It can be easily adopted where water and coal resources are not available.
2. The Nuclear power plant requires very small quantity of fuel. Hence fuel transport cost is less.
3. Space requirement is very less compared to other power plant of equal capacity.
4. It is not affected by adverse weather condition.
18. Mention any 3 fast breeder reactors?
1. Liquid Metal
3. Carbon dioxide
19. What are the ways the liquid wastes are dispose?
2. Concentration to small volumes and storages.
20. Write the effects of Nuclear radiation?