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Chapter: Civil : Estimation and Quantity Surveying : Specification And Tenders

Important Question And Answer: Civil - Estimation and Quantity Surveying - Specification And Tenders

Civil - Estimation and Quantity Surveying - Specification And Tenders



1.write the essentials requirements of contract.


         There must be an offer of one party, and its acceptance by the other party to make an agreement.


         There must be an intention of both the parties to create legal relation.


         The object of the contract must be legal, and it must not be opposed to any policy of the government or company.


         The agreement to make a contract should be supported by consideration, or recongnised by law.


2.what are the types of contract?

1.Lump-sum contract


2.Cost plus percentage of cost contract 3.Item rate contract


4.Labour contract

5.Integrated contracting system


3.what are the important legal implications of a contract?


         Agreement should not violate the provisions of law.


         It should not have any adverse effect on the morals of the society


         The form of contract should be in writing and each page of the documents of the contract should of the contract should be signed by both the parties.


         A contractor who refuse to carry out the work before completion can be sued in a court of law for breach of contract.


4.What is specification?


Specification is an important document attached with a tender form/contract agreement, which in most cases controls the quality of materials and works.


5.State the different types of specification.

1.     General or brief specification

2.     Detailed specification

3.     Standard specification


6.Describe general or brief specification


General specification gives the nature and class of work and materials in general to be used in the various parts of the works, from the foundation to the superstructure.


General specifications give idea of the whole work or structure and are useful for preparing the estimate.


7. Describe detailed specification


The detailed specifications form a part of the contract document. The detailed specification of an item of the work specifies the qualities and quantities of materials proportion of mortar workmanship, the method of preparation and execution and method measurement.


The detailed specifications of different items of work are prepared separately which description what the work should be and how they should executed and constructed.


8. What are the types of penalties that are imposed on a contract and why are they imposed?

Penalties may be imposed for non-fulfillment of conditions of contract  such as not maintaining progress, delay in completion and unsatisfactory work etc. The penalty may be fixed sum per day or a percentage of the estimated cost upto 10%


9.What is arbitration?


Arbitration means the settlement of a dispute by the decision of a third person chosen and acceptable as a judge. The decision of the arbitrator is binding on both the parties. In public works department the superintending engineer function as the arbitrator


10.Why and when the earnest money deposit are collected?


While submitting a tender, the bidder has to deposit with the department an amount equal to about 2 % of the estimated cost of the work which is called earnest money deposit. This amount serves as a check to prevent the contractor from refusing to accept the work or runway, when his tender has been accepted. In case of refusal to take up the work his earnest money is forefeied.


11.Why and when the security deposit are collected?


At the time of execution of the contract agreement, the successful tender has to deposit a further sum of 1% of the contract amount to the department. This amount is known as security deposit. This amount is kept as a check so that the contractor fulfils all terms and conditions of the contract. The security deposit will be refunded to the contractor on the satisfactory completion of the whole work, after the observation period of 6 months


12.What is a tender notice?


Tender notice is the publicity of offer to the contractor to quote their rates for construction for construction work or supplied. Sealed tenders are invited in the most open and public manner. It is made public by advisement in leading newspaper, in the government gazette or by notice in English and in the regional languages in public places.


13.What information should a contract document contain?


1.Title page 2.Index page


3.Tender notice and tender forms 4.Schedule of quantities 5.Drawings


6.General specifications 7.Detailed specification 8.Schedule of issue of materials 9.Conditions of contract.


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