ESTIMATE OF OTHER
1.What are factors to be considered in design of
septic tank? The following factors should be taken into consideration:
Material should be water proof and corrosion
Natural ventilation provided should be adequate
A manhole should be provided to permit inspection
Baffles should be limited to one at the inlet and
one at the outlet.
The escape of gas and sludge to effluent pipe
should be avoided.
Lead is the crow flying
horizontal distance from the centre of borrow pit to the centre of the
earthwork at site, i.e centre of the area of excavation to the centre of placed
Lift is the distance through
which the excavated soil is lifted beyond a certain specified
4. The actual expenditure incurred in the
construction of a school building which have a total length of main walls 140m
is Rs.4.97lakhs.Estimate the approximate cost of a similar school building
which will have 180m length of main walls.
expenditure = Rs.4,97,000 Total length of main walls = 140m
m length of main wall = 4,96,000/140 = Rs.3550/- Length of main walls in the
proposed building = 180m Approximate cost = 180 x 3550 = Rs.6,39,000/-
An estimate is a computation or
calculation of the quantities required and expenditure likely to be incurred in
the construction of a work. The estimate is the probable cost of a work and is
determined theoretically by mathematical calculation based on the plans and
drawing and current rates.
the recommendation for degree of accuracy in measurements.
Dimensions of works shall be measured to an
accuracy of 0.01 m
Thickness of R.C works shall be measured to an accuracy
of 0.0005 m
Areas of works shall be calculated to the nearest
Volumes of work shall be calculated to the nearest
Volumes of wood shall be calculated to the nearest
7.Briefly explain about revised estimate
The estimate, which is prepared
When any major change or alteration is made in the plan / structural
arrangement, with or without affecting the estimate cost, and
When the estimated cost is likely to exceed by more than 5%
during execution, due to increase in the cost of materials and labour or due to
increase in the cost of materials and labour or due to alterations in the items
of works to get the revised quantities /rates/ amount is called a revised
8.Calculate the quality of brickwork in an arch
over a 1.80m span opening. The arch is 40cm.thick and the breath of a wall is
Radius of the arch =1.8m
Thickness of arch = 40 cm The breath of wall = 40cm Mean dia = 3.60+0.40 = 4 m
Mean length of the arch
1/6 *(22/7)* 4 = 2.1m Quantity of brickwork = 2.1*0.40*0.4 = 0.34cu.m No of
bricks required = 0..34cu.m @ 550 bricks per cu.m = 187
It defined as covered area i.e plinth
area excluding area of walls (generally 10% -
15 %) sills of the doors are not included in floor area. The
floor area of very storey shall be measured separately.
This means area in a building
which is useful one i.e area of drawing room, dining room bedroom etc. Areas of
kitchens, staircase, stores, verandahs, entrance hall, bathroom, basement etc.
are excluded. It is generally 50% to 60% of the plinth area.
Define Plinth area
It is defined area of a building
measured at floor level. It is measured by taking external dimensions excluding
plinth offset if any.
are the methods of taking out estimates?
Centre line method
Out to Out and in to in method
Service unit method
13.Briefly explain about Out to
Out and in to in method.
is most practicable
under all circumstances and is
generally followed in the P.W.D for computing the quantities of various
14. Briefly explain about bay
method is useful
and is generally
followed in case
of buildings having several bays. The cost of the
typical bay is worked out and is then multiplied by the number of bays in that
building. The extra cost for the end walls and difference in framing, if there
is any, should be made, so as to arrive at the correct cost
15.Workout the quality of stone metal required for
2Km.Length for wearing coat of a 4m wide road. The thickness of the metal road
required is 12cm loose.
of metal = 1 X 2 X 1000 X 4 X 0.12 = 960.00cu.m
16.An approach road 2Km.long is to be constructed.
Work out the quantity of materials required i.e. stone metal and bricks. Data
is given below.
2 Km Metalled width = 3.60m Soiling of bricks = 10cm
Wearing coat of stone metal = 12
Quantity of bricks = 1 x 2 x 1000 x 3.60 x 0.10 = 720 cu.m No
of bricks = 720.0 x 3.60 x 0.12 = 3,60,000 Stone metal = 1 x 2000 x 3.60 x 0.12
= 864 cu.m Bricks = 3,60,000 Nos
17.A cement concrete road (1:2:3) is to be constructed
over the existing water bound macadam road .The thickness of slab =10cm.The
length of the road is one km and the width 3.60m.Calculate the quality of
cement concrete and the material required,
Quality of cement concrete = 1 x
1000 x 3.60 x 0.10 = 360 cu.m
the quality of earthwork for the construction of an approach road
Length = 1Km
formation = 10 m Height of embankment = 60 cm Side slope = 1:2 Solution
Quantity of earth work = L (Bd+Sd2) B=10cm ; d
=0.60m ;S = 2 Quantity of earth work = 1000 x (10 x 0.60) +2 x 0.60 x 0.60 =
6720 cu.m 19.What are the methods of measurements of earthwork?
shall be measured as given below
Each dimension shall measured nearest to 0.01
Area shall be worked out nearest to 0.01 m2
Volume shall be worked out nearest to 0.01 m3