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ESTIMATE OF BUILDINGS
1..What are methods to be adopted for volume calculating?
• From cross-section
• From spot level
• From contours
2.Define analysis of rates.
Determination of rates of works from the qualities and cost of materials and labours required is termed as analysis of rates
3.Define a tender.
Tender is an offer given in writing to execute specified articles or materials at a certain
rate, within a fixed time, under certain conditions of agreement between the contractor and the party, which may be a government department or an individual.
Contract is merely an agreement being enforceable by law between two persons or
5.What are the types of culvert?
1. Arch culvert
2. Slab culvert
3. Pipe culvert
4. Box culvert
6.what are the methods of estimate?
2. Abstract estimate
7. What are the types of estimate?
1 Preliminary Estimate or Rough cost estimate
2. Plinth area estimate
3. Cube Rate Estimate or Cubical Content Estimate
4. Approximate Quantity Method Estimate
5. Detailed Estimate or Item Rate Estimate 6.Revised Estimate
7. Supplementary Estimate And Revised Estimate. 8.Annual Repair or Maintenances Estimate
9. Supplementary Estimate
8. Briefly explain about preliminary Estimate.
The estimate which prepared using any rough method to get the approximate cost construction anticipated in a project is called an approximate or rough estimate. Since this estimate is normally prepared in the preliminary estimate.
9.Estimate the quantities of brickwork and plastering required in a wall 4m long, 3m high and 30 cm thick. Calculate also the cost if the rate of brickwork is Rs.32.00 per cu.m and of plastering is Rs. 8.50 per sq.m
Quantities of brickwork = LxBxH
= 4m x 3m x 0.30m
= 3.6 cu.m Quantity of plastering (two faces) = 2 x 4m x 3m
= 24sq.m Cost of brickwork =3.6 x 320.00
= Rs.1152.00 Cost of plastering = 24x 8.50
Total cost =1152.00 + 204.00 = Rs.1356.00
10. Define detailed estimate
The estimate, which provides the itemwise quantities of works, item wise unit rates and itemwise expenditure anticipated in thre project/construction, is called a detailed estimate
11. Define Abstract estimate
This is the third and final stage in a detailed estimate. The quantities and rates of each item of work, arrived in the first two stages, are now entered in an abstract form. The total cost of each item of work is now calculated by multiplying the quantities and respective rates.
12. Define quantity surveyor
A qualified or experienced person who does the above mentioned works (taking off, squaring, abstracting and billing) is called a quality surveyor
13. Write the duties of quantity surveyor.
• Preparing bill of quantities (Taking off, squaring, Abstracting and billing)
• Preparing bills for part payments at intervals during the execution of work.
• Preparing bill of adjustment in the case of variations ordered during the execution of work
• Giving legal advice in case of court proceedings
14. Write the essential qualities of a good surveyor.
• The quality surveyor must be well versed with the drawings of work.
• He should be able to read the drawing correctly and bill the quantities accurately
• He should have a through knowledge of the construction procedure to be
adopted, the various items of works involved in the execution: and the different materials to be used in the work.
• He should be able to prepare schedule to be priced by tenderor.
15. What are the main components of culvert?
1.Abutments 2.Wing walls 3.Arch
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