METHODS OF TAKING OUT QUANTITIES
The quantities like earth work, foundation concrete, brickwork in plinthand super structure etc., can be workout by any of following two methods:
a) Long wall - short wall method
b)Centre line method.
c) Partly centre line and short wall method.
1.LONG WALL-SHORT WALL METHOD
In this method, the wall along the length of room is considered to be longwall while the wall perpendicular to long wall is said to be short wall. To get thelength of long wall or short wall, calculate first the centre line lengths of individual walls. Then the length of long wall, (out to out) may be calculated after adding half breadth at each end to its centre line length. Thus the length of short wall Measured into in and may be found by deducting half breadth from its centre linelength at each end. The length of long wall usually decreases from earth work tobrick work in super structure while the short wall increases. These lengths aremultiplied by breadth and depth to getquantities.
2.CENTRE LINE METHOD
This method is suitable for walls of similar cross sections. Here the totalcentre line length is multiplied by breadth and depth of respective item to get thetotal quantity at a time. When cross walls or partitions or verandah walls joinwith main all, the centre line length gets reduced by half of breadth for eachjunction. Such junction or joints are studied carefully while calculating total centreline length. The estimates prepared by this method are most accurate and quick.
3.PARTLY CENTRE LINE AND PARTLY CROSS WALL METHOD
This method is adopted when external (i.e., around the building) wall isof one thickness and the internal walls having different thicknesses. In such cases,centre line method is applied to external walls and long wall-short wall method isused to internal walls. This method suits for different thicknesses walls and differentlevel of foundations. Because of this reason, all Engineering departments arepracticing this method.
The preparation of detailed estimate consists of working out quantities of various items of work and then determines the cost of each item. This is prepared in two stages.
I) DETAILS OF MEASUREMENTS AND CALCULATION OF QUANTITIES
The complete work is divided into various items of work such as earth work concreting, brick work, R.C.C. Plastering etc., The details of measurements are taken from drawings and entered in respective columns of prescribed preformed. The quantities are calculated by multiplying the values that are in numbers column to Depth column as shown below:
Details of measurements form
ii) Abstract of Estimated Cost :
The cost of each item of work is worked out from the quantities that already computed in the details measurement form at workable rate. But the total cost is worked out in the prescribed form is known as abstract of estimated form. 4%of estimated Cost is allowed for Petty Supervision, contingencies and Unforeseen items.
Types of Estimates
ABSTRACT OF ESTIMATE FORM
The detailed estimate should accompanied with
iii)Drawings (plans, elevation, sections)
iv) Design charts and calculations
v)Standard schedule of rates.
5.FACTORS TO BE CONSISDERED WHILE PREPARING DETAILED ESTIMATE
i) Quantity and transportation of materials:
For bigger project, the requirement of materials is more. such bulk volume of materials will be purchased and transported definitely at cheaper rate.
ii) Location of site:
The site of work is selected, such that it should reduce damage or in transit during loading, unloading, stocking of materials.
iii) Local labor charges:
The skill, suitability and wages of local labors are considered while preparing the detailed estimate.
The process of working out the cost or rate per unit of each item is called as Data. In preparation of Data, the rates of materials and labor are obtained from current standard scheduled of rates and while the quantities of materials and labor required for one unit of item are taken from Standard Data Book
7.FIXING OF RATE PER UNIT OF AN ITEM
The rate per unit of an item includes the following:
1) Quantity of materials & cost:
The requirement of materials is taken strictly in accordance with standard data
book(S.D.B). The cost of these includes first cost,freight,insurance and
2) Cost of labour:
The exact number of labourers required for unit of work and the multiplied by the wages/ day to get of labour for unit item work.
3) Cost of equipment (T&P):
Some works need special type of equipment, tools and plant. In such case, an amount of 1 to 2% of estimated cost is provided.
To meet expenses of office rent, depreciation of equipment salaries of staff postage, lighting an amount of 4% of estimate cost is allocated.
8.METHODS OF PREPARATION OF APPROXIMATE ESTIMATE
Preliminary or approximate estimate is required for studies of various aspects of work of project and for its administrative approval. It can decide, in case of commercial projects, whether the net income earned justifies the amount invested or not. The approximate estimate is prepared from the practical knowledge and cost of similar works. The estimate is accompanied by a report duely explaining necessity and utility of the project and with a site or layout plan. A percentage 5 to 10% is allowed for contingencies. The following are the methods used for preparation of approximate estimates.
a) Plinth area method
b)Cubical contents methods
c) Unit base method.
9.Plinth area method
The cost of construction is determined by multiplying plinth area with plinth area rate. The area is obtained by multiplying length and breadth (outer dimensions of building). In fixing the plinth area rate, careful observation and necessary enquiries are made in respect of quality and quantity aspect of materials and labour, type of foundation, height of building, roofwood work, fixtures, number of storey's etc., As per IS 3861-1966, the following areas include while calculating the plinth area of building
Types of Estimates
a) Area of walls at floor level.
b) Internal shafts of sanitary installations not exceeding 2.0m2, lifts, air-conditioning ducts etc.,
c) Area of barsati at terrace level: Barsati means any covered space open on one side constructed on one side constructed on terraced roof which is used as shelter during rainy
d) Porches of non cantilever type.
Areas which are not to include
a) Area of lofts.
c) Architectural bands, cornices etc.,
d)Domes, towers projecting above terrace level.
e) Box louvers and vertical sun breakers.
10.Cubical Contents Method
This method is generally used for multi-storeyed buildings. It is more accurate that the other two methods viz., plinth area method and unit base method. The cost of a structure is calculated approximately as the total cubical contents (Volume of buildings) multiplied by Local Cubic Rate. The volume of building is obtained by Length x breadth x depth or height. The length and breadth are measured out to out of walls excluding the plinth off set. The cost of string course, cornice, corbelling etc., is neglected. The cost of building= volume of buildings x rate/ unit volume.