Transport and communication systems
In our daily life, travel, movement and exchange have become significant
aspects. When we travel on vacation, move commodities from one place to another
and exchange information, and in all of these, there are certain basic ideas
that emerge. These are determined based on the fundamental characteristics of
transport such as the distance, time and cost of travel.
We can understand well the association between travel and movement
through an explanation of transport. Through transport development, the
vehicles and the modes have been shortening the travel distances in the last
few years. The Concorde aircraft travelled at great speed to cover the 6,000 km
between New York and London in 3 hours. The 462 km distance between Paris and
Lyons is covered in 2 hours at a speed of 270 km/hour by the super speed train
known as the TGV. The TGV has been in operation since 1983. Another milestone
in the history of French Railways is a train being run by a computer and
without driver. Such developments lessen the value of travel distance day by
Transport as an activity is being carried out mostly by roads, railways,
sea routes, river ways, air routes and by the telecommunications. The landscape
characteristics of a place determine the nature of vehicles and modes of travel.
The travel costs vary with the types of vehicles and modes of travel. This cost
may be divided into travel cost and freight cost. These charges are collected
from us towards meeting the expenses of travel and transporting goods to places
by the transport sector or agency. The agency expenditure is of three types:
Costs of administration and salaries to the
Fuel and other input costs.
The money paid towards travel is the travel cost (ticket cost). We pay
some charges for the 'luggage' we take with us; but we do so when its weight
exceeds a certain ceiling. The two costs differ with the travel distance. For
short distances, these costs are low and for long distances, they are high. The
rate of these costs decrease with increasing distances. With the modes, they
are differently charged. Freight charges collected by the railways are slightly
smaller than those collected by other modes.
There are incidental (other than travel) expenses, incurred by the
travellers when they are on trips. These incidental charges also differ with
different modes of travel. In general, a part of this cost is collected as
transport tax. At the sea ports and the airports, this is collected as taxes.
The costs incurred while on travel are also included in such costs; for
example, the expenditure incurred in getting to the railway station or the bus
stand towards a travel.