Among several relations that exist between two non-empty sets, some special relations are important for further exploration. Such relations are called “Functions”

**Functions**

Among several
relations that exist between two non-empty sets, some special relations are
important for further exploration. Such relations are called “Functions”

A company has 5
employees in different categories. If we consider their salary distribution for
a month as shown by arrow diagram in Fig.1.11, we see that there is only one
salary associated for every employee of the company.

Here are various real
life situations illustrating some special relations:

1. Consider the set *A
*of all of your classmates; corresponding to each student, there is
only one age.

2. You go to a shop to
buy a book. If you take out a book, there is only one price corresponding to
it; it does not have two prices corresponding to it. (of course, many books may
have the same price).

3. You are aware of
Boyle’s law. CorrespCorresponding to a given value of pressure *P*, there
is only one value of volume *V*.

4. In Economics, the
quantity demanded can be expressed as *Q *= 360 − 4*P *, where P is
the price of the commodity. We see that for each value of *P*, there is
only one value of *Q*. Thus the quantity demanded *Q *depend on the
price *P *of the commodity.

We often come across
certain relations, in which, for a given element of a set *A*, there is
only one corresponding element of a set *B*. Such relations are called functions. We usually use the
symbol *f *to denote a functional relation.

A
relation *f* between two non-empty sets
*X* and *Y* is called a function from *X* to *Y* if, for each *x* ∈ *X* there exists only one *y* ∈*Y* such that (*x* , *y*) ∈ *f* .

That is, *f* ={(*x*,*y*)| for all *x* ∈ *X*, *y*
∈*Y *}.

A function *f *from
*X *to *Y *is written as *f*: *X *→ *Y *.

Comparing the definitions of relation and function, we see that every function is a relation. Thus, functions are subsets of relations and relations are subsets of cartesian product. (Fig.1.12(a))

A function *f *can
be thought as a mechanism (or device) (Fig.1.12(*b*)), which gives a
unique output *f*(*x*) to every input *x*.

**notes**

If f: X → Y is a
function then

·
The set X is called the domain of the function f and the set Y
is called its co-domain.

·
If** ***f*** **(*a*) =**
***b*, then** ***b*** **is called ‘image’ of**
***a***
**under** ***f*** **and** ***a*** **is called a ‘pre-image’ of** ***b*.

·
The set of all images of the elements
of** ***X*** **under** ***f*** **is called the ‘range’ of**
***f*.

·
*f*** **:** ***X*** **→*Y*** **is a function only if

(i) every element in the domain of *f* has an image.

(ii) the
image is unique.

·
If** ***A*** **and** ***B*** **are finite sets such that** ***n*** **(*A*)**
**=** ***p*** **,** ***n*** **(*B*)**
**=** ***q*** **then the total number of functions that exist between *A* and *B* is *q* *p* .

·
In this chapter we always consider**
***f***
**to be a real valued function.

·
Describing domain of a function

(i) Let * f* (*x*)
= 1 / [*x* + 1]. If *x* = –1 then *f* (–1) is not defined. Hence *f
*is defined for
all real numbers except at *x* = −1. So domain of *f* is **R** - {-1} .

(ii) Let f (x)
= 1 / [x^{2} − 5x + 6]; If *x* = 2, 3 then *f* (2) and *f* (3) are not
defined. Hence *f* is defined
for all real numbers except at *x*
= 2 and 3. So domain of *f* =
**R** − {2, 3}.

Functions play very
important role in the understanding of higher ideas in mathematics. They are
basic tools to convert from one form to another form. In this sense, functions
are widely applied in Engineering Sciences.

**Notes**

The range of a
function is a subset of it’s co-domin

**Example 1.6**

Let X = {1, 2, 3,
4}and Y = {2, 4, 6, 8,10}and R = {(1,2),(2,4),(3,6),(4,8)}. Show that R is a
function and find its domain, co-domain and range?

*Solution*

Pictorial representation
of R is given in Fig.1.14. From the diagram, we see that for each *x *∈ *X *, there exists only one *y *∈*Y *. Thus all elements in *X *have only one image in *Y*.
Therefore R is a function.

Domain *X *=
{1,2,3,4}; Co-domain *Y *= {2,3,6,8,10}; Range of *f *= {2,4,6,8}.

**Example 1.7**

A relation ‘*f*’
is defined by *f *(*x*) =*x*^{2} − 2
where, *x *∈ {−2,−1, 0, 3}

(i) List the elements
of *f *

(ii) Is *f *a
function?

*Solution*

*f *(*x*) = *x*^{2}
– 2 where *x *∈ {−2,−1, 0, 3}

(i) *f *(-2) = (−2)^{2} – 2 = 2 ; *f *(-1) = (−1)^{2}
– 2 = −1

*f *(0) = (0)^{2}
– 2 = −2 ; *f *(3) = (3)^{2} – 2 =7

Therefore,* f *=
{(−2, 2),(−1,−1),(0,−2),(3, 7)}

(ii) We note that each
element in the domain of *f *has a unique image. Therefore *f *is a
function.

**Example 1.8 **If *X *=
{–5,1,3,4} and Y = {*a*,*b*,*c*}, then which of the following
relations are functions from *X *to *Y *?

(i) R_{1} = {(–5,*a*), (1,*a*), (3,*b*)}

(ii) R_{ 2} = {(–5,*b*), (1,*b*), (3,*a*),(4,*c*)}

(iii) R_{ 3}
= {(–5,*a*), (1,*a*), (3,*b*),(4,*c*),(1,*b*)}

*Solution*

(i) R_{ 1} = {(–5,*a*), (1,*a*), (3,*b*)}

We may represent the relation R_{1}
in an arrow diagram (Fig.1.15(a)).

R_{1}
is not a function as 4 ∈ X does not have an image in Y.

(ii) (ii) R_{2}
= {(–5,b), (1,b), (3,a),(4,c)}

Arrow diagram of 2 is shown in
Fig.1.15(b).

R_{2}
is a function as each element of X has an unique image in Y.

(iii) R_{3} = {(–5,a), (1,a),
(3,b),(4,c),(1,b)}

Representing
R_{3} in an
arrow diagram (Fig.1.15(c)).

R_{3} is not a
function as 1 ∈ *X* has two images *a* ∈*Y* and *b* ∈*Y* .

Note that
the image of an element should always be unique.

Given *f *(*x*)
= 2*x *– *x*^{2} ,

find (i) *f *(1)
(ii) *f *(*x*+1) (iii) *f *(*x*) + *f *(1)

(i) Replacing *x *with
1, we get

*f *(1) = = 2(1) – (1)^{2}=
2 – 1 =1_{}

(ii) Replacing *x *with
*x*+1, we get

*f *(*x*+1) = 2(*x *+
1) – (*x *+ 1)^{2} =2*x *+ 2 – (*x*^{2} + 2*x *+
1) = −*x*^{2} + 1

*f *(*x*) + *f *(1)
= (2*x *– *x*^{2} )+1=−*x*^{2} + 2*x *+ 1

[Note that *f*
(*x* ) + *f* (1) ≠ *f* (*x*
+ 1) . In general *f* (*a*
+*b*) is not
equal to*f*(*a*)+*f*(*b*)]

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