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# Free and Forced Convection

When the mixing motion of the fluid particles is the result of the density difference caused by a temperature gradient, the process of heat transfer is called natural or free convection.

Free and Forced Convection

When the mixing motion of the fluid particles is the result of the density difference caused by a temperature gradient, the process of heat transfer is called natural or free convection. When the mixing motion is created by an artificial means (by some external agent), the process of heat transfer is called forced convection Since the effectiveness of heat transfer by convection depends largely on the mixing motion of the fluid particles, it is essential to have a knowledge of the characteristics of fluid flow.

Basic Difference between Laminar and Turbulent Flow

In laminar or streamline flow, the fluid particles move in layers such that each fluid p article follows a smooth and continuous path. There is no macroscopic mixing of fluid particles between successive layers, and the order is maintained even when there is a turn around a comer or an obstacle is to be crossed. If a lime dependent fluctuating motion is observed indirections which are parallel and transverse to t he main flow, i.e., there is a radom macroscopic mixing of fluid particles across successive layers of fluid flow, the motion of the fluid is called' turbulent flow'. The path of a fluid particle would then be zigzag and irregular, but on a statistical basis, the overall motion of the macroparticles would be regular and predictable.

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