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Chapter: Special Electrical Machines - Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

Construction and Principle of Operation - Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

Permanent magnet synchronous machines generally have same operating and performance characteristics as synchronous machines.

CONSTRUCTION AND PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

 

Permanent magnet synchronous machines generally have same operating and performance characteristics as synchronous machines. A permanent magnet machine can have a configuration almost identical to that of the conventional synchronous machines with absence of slip rings and a field winding.

 

Construction

 

Fig. 5.1 shows a cross section of simple permanent magnet synchronous machines. It consists of the stationary member of the machine called stator. Stator laminations for axial air gap machines are often formed by winding continuous strips of soft steel. Various parts of the laminations are the teeth slots which contain the armature windings. Yoke completes the magnetic path. Lamination thickness depends upon the frequency of the armature source voltage and cost.

 

Armature windings are generally double layer (two coil side per slot) and lap wound. Individual coils are connected together to form phasor groups. Phasor groups are connected together in series/parallel combinations to form star, delta, two phase (or) single windings.

 

AC windings are generally short pitched to reduce harmonic voltage generated in the windings.

 

Coils, phase groups and phases must be insulated from each other in the end-turn regions and the required dielectric strength of the insulation will depend upon the voltage ratings of the machines.

 

 

In a permanent magnet machines the air gap serves an role in that its length largely determines the operating point of the permanent magnet in the no-load operating condition of the machines .Also longer air gaps reduce machines windage losses.

 

The permanent magnets form the poles equivalent to the wound field pole of conventional synchronous machines. Permanent magnet poles are inherently ―salient‖ and there is no equivalent to the cylindrical rotor pole configurations used in many convectional synchronous machines.

 

Many permanent magnet synchronous machines may be cylindrical or ―smooth rotor‖ physically but electrically the magnet is still equivalent to a salient pole structure. Some of the PMSM rotors have the permanent magnets directly facing the air gap as in fig. 5.2.

 

Rotor yoke is the magnetic portion of the rotor to provide a return path for the permanent magnets and also provide structural support. The yoke is often a part of the pole structure

 


 

Damper winding is the typical cage arrangement of conducting bars, similar to induction motor rotor bars and to damper bars used on many other types of synchronous machines. It is not essential for all permanent magnet synchronous machines applications, but is found in most machines used in power applications.

 

The main purpose is to dampen the oscillations about synchronous speed, but the bars are also used to start synchronous motors in many applications.

 

The design and assembly of damper bars in permanent magnet machines are similar to the other types of synchronous machines.

 

Synchronous machines are classified according to their rotor configuration. There are four general types of rotors in permanent magnet synchronous machines. They are

 

1.     Peripheral rotor

 

2.     Interior rotor

 

3.     Claw pole or lundell rotor.

 

4.     Transverse rotor.

 

v   Peripheral rotor

 

The permanent magnets are located on the rotor periphery and permanent magnet flux is radial.

v   Interior rotor

 

The permanent magnets are located on the interior of the rotor and flux is generally radial.

v   Claw pole or Lund ell

 

The permanent magnets are generally disc shaped and magnetized axially. Long soft iron extensions emanate axially from periphery of the discs like claws or Lund ell poles. There is set of equally spaced claws on each disc which alternate with each other forming alternate north and south poles.

v Transverse rotor

 

In this type the permanent magnets are generally between soft iron poles and the permanent magnet flux is circumferential. In this soft iron poles at as damper bars. Magnetically this configuration is similar to a reluctance machine rotor, since the permeability of the permanent magnet is very low, almost the same as that of a non-magnetic material. Therefore, reluctance torque as well as torque resulting from the permanent magnet flux is developed.

 

Thus BLPM sine waves (SNW) motor is construction wise the same as that of BLPM square wave (SQW) motor. The armature winding and the shape of the permanent magnet are so designed that flux density distribution of the air gap is sinusoidal(i.e.) .The magnetic field setup by the permanent magnet in the air gap is sinusoidal

 

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