It is not possible to show all the data of an area on a map. The details that are to be shown may vary according to requirement. Therefore, it is essential to consider the scale and purpose while preparing maps.
a) On the basis of scale, maps can be classified into:
· Large scale maps: Large amount of detail; can only show a small area.
· Small scale map: Small amount of detail; can show a large area.
b) On the basis of utility and purpose, they are classified as:
· General maps / Topographic Maps (physical and political maps)
· Thematic map (spatial variations of single phenomena)
· Special purpose maps (Braille maps for blind people, maps for neo literates, military maps, navigational charts, etc).
Presume a tourist wants to enjoy a holiday at a place. What type of map should he look for?
Obviously, a tourist map or a travelogue.
A travelogue includes all the information required by a tourist like communication, transportation, hotels, tourist spots, health centres, ATM, petrol stations etc.
Topographical maps and weather maps
Topographical maps show main features like landforms, water features, forests, settlements, agricultural fields, other land use, transportation and communication networks. These maps are general purpose maps and are drawn at quite large scales. The Survey of India prepares the topographical maps in India for the entire country.
A weather map is the technique of meteorologists to display all the weather data recorded at various stations of a country at a particular point of time into a compact outline map using symbols and isolines. A weather map, otherwise called a synoptic chart, helps in weather analysis and weather forecast of the country/region for the next two to three days.