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CHANNEL CODING THEOREM:
The noisy-channel coding theorem (sometimes Shannon's theorem), establishes that for any given degree of noise contamination of a communication channel, it is possible to communicate discrete data (digital information) nearly error-free up to a computable maximum rate through the channel. This result was presented by Claude Shannon in 1948 and was based in part on earlier work and ideas of Harry Nyquist and Hartley. The Shannon limit or Shannon capacity of a communications channel is the theoretical maximum information transfer rate of the channel, for a particular noise level.
The theorem describes the maximum possible efficiency of error-correcting methods versus levels of noise interference and data corruption. Shannon's theorem has wide-ranging applications in both communications and data storage. This theorem is of foundational importance to the modern field of information theory. Shannon only gave an outline of the proof. The first rigorous proof for the discrete case is due to Amiel Feinstein in 1954.
The Shannon theorem states that given a noisy channel with channel capacity C and information transmitted at a rate R, then if R<C there exist codes that allow the probability of error at the receiver to be made arbitrarily small. This means that, theoretically, it is possible to transmit information nearly without error at any rate below a limiting rate, C.
The converse is also important. If R>C , an arbitrarily small probability of error is not achievable. All codes will have a probability of error greater than a certain positive minimal level, and this level increases as the rate increases. So, information cannot be guaranteed to be transmitted reliably across a channel at rates beyond the channel capacity. The theorem does not address the rare situation in which rate and capacity are equal.
The channel capacity C can be calculated from the physical properties of a channel; for a band-limited channel with Gaussian noise, using the Shannon–Hartley theorem.
For every discrete memory less channel, the channel capacity has the following property. For any ε > 0 and R < C, for large enough N, there exists a code of length N and rate ≥ R and a decoding algorithm, such that the maximal probability of block error is ≤ ε.
2. If a probability of bit error pb is acceptable, rates up to R(pb) are achievable, where
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