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Chapter: Civil : Housing Planning and Management : Introduction To Housing

Central Government Organization for Housing

1. Housing Urban Development Corporation (HUDCO) 2. Housing Development Finance Corporation [HDFC] 3. Life Insurance Corporation [LIC] 4. National Housing and Habitat Policy [NHHP]

Central Government Organization for Housing


1. Housing Urban Development Corporation (HUDCO)


The was started in the year 1970. In the middle of 1971 it was functioning. The primary aim of HUDCO is Housing, development, improvement and urban development. It acts as an apex body [forum] to decide the fund, investment


required for satisfying the primary aim. HUDCO introduced new schemes for development of the investment. They are as follows


Document shares


Compound interest income scheme


Money doubling scheme in 60 months


Monthly income scheme


The funds generated by above methods are used for various HUDCO schemes. Housing agencies, municipalities, public concerns, private agencies which are not coming under the director control of government utilizes the HUDCO funds.


HUDCO scheme benefits many towns and villages as per 1995 and 1996 census.

HUDCO spent rupees 9043 crores for 10556 schemes of workers. They


charged 6-13.55 interest for its loan based on the method for distributing the loan on the agency.


Another primary aim of HUDCO is financing for an agency supping the construction materials.


HUDCO gives technical guidance and advices for different agencies. It also implement low cost housing schemes, shopping complex, township and urban development schemes, construction of road, water supply and drainage are also given primary importance by hudco.


Some of the schemes introduced by HUDCO are as follows:




Rural housing Land requisition


Construction of community welfare centre Technical improvement


Improvement of environment conditions of slums or slum areas Basic health or hygienic conditions


Staff housing development


Improvement of affected people


Housing for poor people in particular people in hills / tribes


HUDCO divides the people into four categories


Economically Weaker Section [EWS] Low Income Group [LIG]


Middle Income Group [MIG] High Income Group [HIG]


The amount of loan granted, repayment period, interest rates for the above categories HUDCO allocate the find as follows


EWS - 30% LIG - 25% MIG - 25% HIG - 20%


2. Housing Development Finance Corporation [HDFC]


This was started in the year 1976 and run by financial assists of the government HDFC develops housing schemes from the fund collected through the public. It generates the fund by equity shares, insurance premium, and bank loan as per the approval of reserve bank.

It grants the loans for purchasing an immovable property [land and building] and selling it. For shopping complex and commercial centers also bank loans are granted.


It formulates easy installment and repayment schemes to collect more money for house loans. It suggests guidance and advice for selecting a site and purchasing a flat. HDFC also introduced new housing schemes for their employees. It has several banks and collection centre.


3. Life Insurance Corporation [LIC]


LIC provides financial assistance for housing. LIC started a housing finance in the name 'LIC House Finance Limited' in the year 1989. These functions with 67 branches and

35% of market share.


It has spent 5500 crores for 30 lakh houses. It simplifies the method of getting a house. It grants loans for the LIC policy holders to construct a new house, for extension of a house, for repairing a house and from purchasing a flat or built - up house or apartment.


4. National Housing and Habitat Policy [NHHP]


In the year 1998, on the eve of the 12th Lok Sabha elections, the BJP and its Alliance partners brought out a 'National Agenda for Governance' for ushering in a dynamic economic growth to bring in quality life for mases. This agenda included issues like Governance, Eradication of Unemployment, Housing for All etc.


Aim of NHHP is to provide 'Housing for All', especially benefiting the deprived and the poor.


Tamilnadu municipality byelaws and building rules (1972)


1. Permission


b. For the construction, reconstruction, addition or alteration of a building the permission will not be granted if the clearance between the building and the aerial lines is less than.

1.5m  for  low  tension  and  1.75  m  for  high  tension  lines  measured horizontally incase


of accessible portions of the buildings


1.25m              for low and high tension        lines       measured            horizontally  incase                        of  inaccessible


portions of the buildings.


2.5m               for  portions      of    the          buildings         not accessible      to      the                       portions measured




2. Space of buildings


Where  the  street  at  anyplace  is  less  than  3.75m  in  width,  the  building should not be


built within 2m from the center point of the street.

No other structure than the steps, fence is permitted in the space between the building and edge of the street.


The  doors  and  window  shutters  should  not  open  Outward  Street  where the  street  is


3.75m or more width and the buildings is built along with edge of the street.


3. Dimensions of rooms


A height of an average is not less than 2.75 m and 2.1m at any point measured from top surface of the floor to the underside of the roof.


A clear superficial area is not less than 7.5m2


A width is not less than 2.5m


Bathroom area is 1.8m2 (1.52 x 1.2m)


The water closet or toilet shall be 1 m2 (1.2 x 0.9m)


The bath cum water closet shall be 2.7m2 (1.82 x 1.52m)


4. Ventilation of buildings


Every room intended or used for human habitation (human activites) should have windows and ventilators


The area of ventilation should not be less than 1/8 floor area or carpet area


Every domestic building constructed for human habitation should have at least one side abutting for a length of not less than 2.5m on an open space either internal/external. Such open space shall not be less than 1.75m in width.


Every open space either internal or external should open to sky no construction is allowed in the open space area.


For bath and toilets the area of windows or ventilator should not be less than




1 sqm                      = 10.75 sq.ft


0.5 sqm                   = 5.38 sq.ft [3' x 2' = 6 sq.ft]



5. Minimum width


The doorways, windows or passage should have a minimum width of 1m. The door of kitchen, bath and toilet should not be less than 0.6m clear width.


6. Chimneys


Chimneys, flush and sanitary appliances or convenience are to be provided properly in the building.


7. Staircase


a. Width of the stair


The clear width of the stair excluding hand rail shall not be less 500 mm.


b. Head room [Height from floor to roof]


The headroom should be at least 2.1m measured perpendicular from the nosing (projection on step)


c. Tread and Riser


The riser shall not be more than 175mm and the tread shall not be less than


250 mm. the sum of two risers and the tread shall not be less than 600mm and not more than 625mm. in one flight should be not be any variation in rise / tread. No stairs should be permitted to cut across a window.


d. Landing


The height between the landings shall not be more than 3.75 m


e. Rails


The handrails shall be placed at the height not less than 750mm and not than 1000mm above the projection of step.


f. Ventilation


The passage giving access to the staircase width shall not be less than the stair width. In the passage gives access to more than 1 stair its minimum width shall be equal to the width of the stair +1.5 of total width of the remaining stair width.


g. Passage


Passage width should not be less than stair width. If the passage gives access to the more one stair. Its minimum width shall be equal to width of the stair. The State and Central government building are exempted from these rules.



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