Social Science : History
THE BEGINNING OF THE
VI. Answer the following
1. Discuss how Renaissance, Reformation
and Geographical discoveries heralded the modern age?
Heralded the Modern Age
• Geographical Discoveris
• There was a surge of enthusiasm and interest in studying classical
literature and art. This creative upsurge was reflected in writings, art, architecture
• Manuscripts of classical literature were collected and printed.
This provided stimulus to the followering of renaissance.
• The study of humanities was so popular in the Italian Universities
that students from all over Europe flocked there. The idea of humanism was introduced;
expressed in literature.
• Great artists produced some of the finest artistic works.
• The critical thinking and inquisitive spirit of Renaissance humanism
helped people question such practices of the church.
• Erasmus and Sir Thomas more apart from condemning the corrupt practices
of the church and critical of its doctrine.
• The Reformers issued Pamphlets and Published books highlighting
the abuses of the Catholic Church.
• Attempts to reform the church
before 16th Century met with failure. In the age of reason the moves of the reformers
were supported by some of the rulers of the nation - states.
• Henry the Navigator of Portugal established navigation school to
• The impulse for seafaring and adventurous spirit to explore uncharted
sea waters was kindled by the curiosity generated.
• The travel accounts of Marco polo and Ibn Battula, further fuelled
by the crusading spirit of the missionaries to spread the gospel.
• When the Ottomen Turks blocked the land route between the East
and the West, the European traders were deprived of the huge profits. This intensified
the urge to discover new sea route to Asia.
2. Examine the outcome of the geographical
Impact of Geographical
Discoveries (Any five)
• The geographical discoveries transformed the european understanding
the world. It led to the redrawing the world map.
• The economic centre of Europe shifted from the Italian City states
to Spain and Portugal.
• Spain conquested Mexico and South America and made further exploration
and defeated the natives and colonized.
• The exported deadly diseases led to the near annililation of the
natives in most parts of the Americas.
• The European Countries purchased slaves from Africa who were transported
to America. The Trans - Atlantic Trade was a triangular trade. The European Countries
Profited immensely from this trade.
• It led to commercial revolution. The chief features of this revolution
were the emergence of banking, joint - stock companies and growth of trade.
• The 17th century witnessed the emergence of variours East India
Activities (For Students)
In an outline map of World, mark the routes of
Bartholomew Diaz b) Vasco-da-Gama c) Columbus d) Magellan
Collect pictures of European explorers.
Create a model of Mariner's Compass.
Construct a model ship of medieval Europe.