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Chapter: Basic Concept of Biotechnology - Biomolecules

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Watson and Crick’s double helix structure of DNA

Unlike DNA, RNA is a single stranded molecule, which may fold back on itself to form double helix structure by base pairing in a region where base sequences are complimentary.

Watson and Crick’s double helix structure of DNA

 Unlike DNA, RNA is a single stranded molecule, which may fold back on itself to form double helix structure by base pairing in a region where base sequences are complimentary. There are three types of RNA molecules which perform different functions. These are named as messenger RNA (m-RNA), ribosomal-RNA(r-RNA) and transfer RNA (t-RNA)





Biological Functions of Nucleic Acids

A DNA molecule is capable of self duplication during cell divisions. The process starts with the unwinding of the two chains in the parent DNA. As the two strands separate, each can serve as a master copy for the construction of a new partner. This is done by bringing the appropriate nucleotides in place and linking them together. Because the bases must be paired in a specific manner (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine), each newly built strand is not identical but complimentary to the old one. Thus when replication is completed, we have two DNA molecules, each identical to the original. Each of the new molecules is a double helix that has one old strand and one new strand to be transmitted to daughter cells (Fig. 1.2).

Another important function of nucleic acids is the protein synthesis. The specific sequence of bases in DNA represents coded information for the manufacture of specific proteins. In the process, the information from DNA is transmitted to another nucleic acid called messenger RNA, which leaves the nucleus and goes to the cytoplasm of the cell. Messenger RNA acts as template for the incorporation of amino acids in the proper sequence in protein. The amino acids are brought to the messenger RNA in the cell, by transfer RNA. Where they form peptide bonds. In short it can be said that DNA contains the coded message for protein synthesis whereas RNA actually carries out the synthesis of protein.

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