Congenital anomalies include double ureters and congenital megaureter.
Ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction is the most common cause of hydro nephrosis in infants and children.
Congenital UPJ obstruction can also be identified in adults. It is often seen with other congenital anomalies. Treatment is surgical.
Ureteritis cystica describes chronic inflammation which causes formation of small mucosal cysts in the ureter. This condition can predispose for adenocarcinoma of the ureter.
Renal stones commonly lodge in the ureters.
Retroperitoneal fibrosis is usually an idiopathic condition causing severe fibrosis of the retroperitoneal area, which can entrap the ureters. Some cases show sclerosing conditions in other body sites and are associated with elevated serum IgG4.
Transitional cell carcinoma is the most common ureteral carcinoma.