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Types of Kinematic Pairs:
Kinematic pairs can be classified according to
i) Nature of contact.
ii) Nature of mechanical constraint.
iii) Nature of relative motion.
i) Kinematic pairs according to nature of contact:
a) Lower Pair: A pair of links having surface or area contact between the members is known as a lower pair. The contact surfaces of the two links are similar.
Examples: Nut turning on a screw, shaft rotating in a bearing, all pairs of a slider-crank mechanism, universal joint.
b) Higher Pair: When a pair has a point or line contact between the links, it is known as a higher pair. The contact surfaces of the two links are dissimilar.
Examples: Wheel rolling on a surface cam and follower pair, tooth gears, ball and roller bearings, etc.
ii) Kinematic pairs according to nature of mechanical constraint.
a) Closed pair: When the elements of a pair are held together mechanically, it is known as a closed pair. The contact between the two can only be broken only by the destruction of at least one of the members. All the lower pairs and some of the higher pairs are closed pairs.
b) Unclosed pair: When two links of a pair are in contact either due to force of gravity or some spring action, they constitute an unclosed pair. In this the links are not held together mechanically. Ex.: Cam and follower pair.
iii) Kinematic pairs according to nature of relative motion.
a) Sliding pair: If two links have a sliding motion relative to each other, they form a sliding pair. A rectangular rod in a rectangular hole in a prism is an example of a sliding pair.
b) Turning Pair: When on link has a turning or revolving motion relative to the other, they constitute a turning pair or revolving pair.
c) Rolling pair: When the links of a pair have a rolling motion relative to each other, they form a rolling pair. A rolling wheel on a flat surface, ball ad roller bearings, etc. are some of the examples for a Rolling pair.
d) Screw pair (Helical Pair): if two mating links have a turning as well as sliding motion between them, they form a screw pair. This is achieved by cutting matching threads on the two links.
The lead screw and the nut of a lathe is a screw Pair
e) Spherical pair: When one link in the form of a sphere turns inside a fixed link, it is a spherical pair. The ball and socket joint is a spherical pair.
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