In cutting, nearly all of energy dissipated in plastic deformation is converted into heat that in turn raises the temperature in the cutting zone. Since the heat generation is closely related to the plastic deformation and friction, we can specify three main sources of heat when cutting,
Plastic deformation by shearing in the primary shear zone
Plastic deformation by shearing and friction on the cutting face
Friction between chip and tool on the tool flank
Heat is mostly dissipated by,
The discarded chip carries away about 60~80% of the total heat
The workpiece acts as a heat sink drawing away 10~20% heat
The cutting tool will also draw away ~10% heat
If coolant is used in cutting, the heat drawn away by the chip can be as big as 90% of the total heat dissipated. Knowledge of the cutting temperature is important because it:
Affects the wear of the cutting tool. Cutting temperature is the primary factor affecting the cutting tool wear can induce thermal damage to the machined surface. High surface temperatures promote the process of oxidation of the machined surface. The oxidation layer has worse mechanical properties than the base material, which may result in shorter service life. Causes dimensional errors in the machined surface. The cutting tool elongates as a result of the increased temperature, and the position of the cutting tool edge shifts toward the machined surface, resulting in a dimensional error of about 0.01~0.02 mm. Since the processes of thermal generation, dissipation, and solid body thermal deformation are all transient, some time is required to achieve a steady-state condition
Cutting temperature determination
Cutting temperature is either measured in the real machining process, or predicted in the machining process design. The mean temperature along the tool face is measured directly by means of different thermocouple techniques, or indirectly by measuring the infrared radiation, or examination of change in the tool material microstructure or micro hardness induced by temperature. Some recent indirect methods are based on the examination of the temper color of a chip, and on the use of thermo sensitive paints.
There are no simple reliable methods of measuring the temperature field. Therefore, predictive approaches must be relied on to obtain the mean cutting temperature and temperature field in the chip, tool and work piece.
For cutting temperature prediction, several approaches are used:
Analytical methods: there are several analytical methods to predict the mean temperature. The interested readers are encouraged to read more specific texts, which present in detail these methods. Due to the complex nature of the metal cutting process, the analytical methods are typically restricted to the case of orthogonal cutting.
Numerical methods: These methods are usually based on the finite element modeling of metal cutting. The numerical methods, even though more complex than the analytical approaches, allow for prediction not only of the mean cutting temperature along the tool face but also the temperature field in orthogonal and oblique cutting.