and revenue reforms implemented by the East India Company since late eighteenth
century had its impact on the agrarian conditions in India.
growth of heavy machine industries in Britain allowed East India Company to
export raw materials from India to Britain and take back the finished products
– a process that led to the decline of Indian handicrafts, making the artisans
labourers and jobless artisans emigrating to Empire colonies to escape
unintended result of Western education introduced by the British was the
emergence of a new class of educated Indians who strove for the reforms of
like the bitter memories of 1857, policy of racial discrimination, repressive
measures against dissension contributed to the growth of nationalism.
intelligentsia formed political organisation like Madras Native Association
(1852), Madras Mahajana Sabha (1884) and Indian National Congress (1885) to
voice their opinions and grievances.
role of these leaders was to educate the common mass about the exploitative
colonial rule and its impact on their day to day life. Drain of wealth theory
enunciated by Dadabhai Naoroji exposed the British loot of the resources of