The history of south India can be traced clearly from about the third century BCE, as script was adopted for writing Tamil, and written evidence in the form inscriptions and literature are available.
Economic development with agro-pastoral expansion characterised the Early Historic Period.
The Cheras, Cholas, and the Pandyas, who were at the level of chiefdoms in the Iron Age, became kings with the title of Vendar in the Sangam Age.
The Satavahanas who ruled Andhra, Karnataka and Maharashtra regions were contemporary rulers.
Buddhism and Jainism had a strong presence in south India. Vedic ideas started to influence the ruling class.
Sea-borne trade in the Indian Ocean regions and with the Roman world developed.
The idea of Kalabhra interregnum is contested as cultural activities continued as before in this period.