SCIENCE VS. TECHNOLOGY
The difference between science and technology is science is the knowing of what is going on, what is happening in nature, and to increase knowledge. Science is a lot slower than technology. Tech-nology is to control and use of science to provide a practical use.
1 SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
INDIA has had a long and distinguished tradition in Science from accomplishments of ancient times to great achievements during this century; the latter half, prior to Independence has been related largely to pure research. At the time of Independence, our scientific and technological infrastructure was neither strong nor organised in comparison with that of the Developed World. This had resulted in our being technologically dependent on skills and expertise available in other countries during early years of Independence. In the past four decades, an infrastructure and capability largely commensurate with meeting national needs has been created minimising our dependence on other countries. But, we still have a long way to go in this field to be self-sufficient. A range of industries from small to the most sophisticated has been established covering wide-range of utilities, services and goods. There is now a reservoir of expertise well acquainted with the most modern advances in basic and applied areas that is equipped to make choices between available technologies, to absorb readily new technologies and pro-vide a framework for future national Development.
2 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY INFRASTRUCTURE
Scientific research in India is carried out fewer than three major sectors, viz., Central Govern-ment, state governments and various in-house research and development units of industrial undertak-ings, both under public and private sectors besides cooperative Reserved & Development associations. Bulk of research effort in the country is financed by major scientific departments/agencies such as Departments of Science and Technology, Atomic Energy, Space, Scientific and Industrial Research, Electronics, Non-Conventional Energy Sources, Environment, Ocean Development, Biotechnology Agencies i.e., Indian Council of Medical Research, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Indian Agricultural Research Institute. etc. There are about 200 research laboratories within the purview of these major scientific agencies carrying out research in different, areas. Besides. There are a large number of scientific institutions under the Central ministries departments which carryout research pro-grammes of practical relevance to their areas of responsibility. States supplement the efforts of Central government in areas like agriculture, animal husbandry, fisheries, public health, etc. Institutions of higher education carryout sizeable work in science and technology and are supported by the University Grants Commission and Central and state governments. They also carryout sponsored research projects financed by different agencies.
Government is providing a number of incentives to industrial establishments in private and pub-lic sectors to encourage them to undertake research and development activities. Consequently, scientific research is gaining momentum in several industrial establishments. As on January 1990, there were over 1,200 in-house research and development units in public and private sectors, reorganised by the Depart-ment of Scientific and Industrial Research. Also, recently public funded research institutions through Department of Science and Technology have introduced a ?Pass Book? Scheme for import of scientific equipment liberally.