Energy is the capacity for doing work, generating heat, and
emitting light. The equation for work is the force, which is the mass time the
gravity times the distance.
Heat is the ability to change the temperature of an object or
phase of a substance. For example, heat changes a solid into a liquid or a
liquid into a vapor. Heat is part of the definition of energy.
part of the definition of energy is radiation, which is the light and energy
emitted in the form of waves traveling at the speed of light.
Energy is measured in units of calorie, quad, and joule. A
kilocalorie is the amount of energy or heat required to raise the temperature
of 1 kilogram of water from 14.5?C to 15.5?C. The quad unit is used to measure
energy needed for big countries. The final measurement of energy is joules.
Energy is an essential input for economic development and
improving quality of life. India?s per capita consumption of Commercial Energy
(viz., coal, petroleum and electricity)
is only one-eighth of the Global Average and will increase with growth in Gross
Domestic Production (GDP) and improve-ment in standard of living.
Commercial Energy accounts for a little over half of the total
energy used in the Country, the rest coming from non-commercial resources like
cow-dung, fuel wood and agricultural waste. Though the share of these
non-commercial sources has been coming down, consumption has increased almost
dou-ble since 1953.
These renewable, non-commercial sources have been used
extensively for hundreds of years but in a primitive and ineffective way.
Indiscriminate use of non-commercial energy sources is leading to an energy
crisis in the rural areas. Seventh Plan laid emphasis on the development and
accelerated utilisa-tion of renewable energy sources in rural and urban areas.
A major Policy of the Government is directed towards increasing the use of coal
in household and of electricity in transport sector in order to reduce
dependence on oil, which is becoming scarce gradually.
The Government has formulated an energy policy with objectives
of ensuring adequate energy supply at minimum cost, achieving self-sufficiency
in energy supplies and protecting environment from adverse impact of utilising
energy resources in an injudicious manner. Main elements of the policy are:
Accelerated exploitation of domestic conventional energy
resources-oil, coal, hydro and nu-clear power;
Intensification of exploration to increase indigenous production
of oil and gas;
Management of demand for oil and other forms of energy;
Energy conservation and management;
Optimisation of utilisation of existing capacity in the country;
6. Development and
exploitation of renewable sources of energy to meet energy requirements of
Intensification of research and development activities in new
and renewable energy sources; and
Organisation of training far personnel engaged at various levels
in the energy sector.
conventional forms of energy for meeting the growing energy needs of the
society at a reasonable cost is the responsibility of Government viz., Department of Power, Coal and Petroleum
and Natural Gas. Development and promotion of non-conventional/alternate/new
and renew-able sources of energy such as Solar, Wind and Bio-energy, etc., are also getting sustained attention
from the Department of Non-Conventional Energy Sources created in September,
1982. Nuclear Energy De-velopment is being geared up by the Department of
Atomic Energy to contribute significantly to overall energy availability in the
Energy Conservation is
being given the highest-priority and is being used as a tool to bridge the gaps
between demand and supply of energy. An autonomous body, namely Energy Management
Centre, has been set up on ten April, 1989, as a nodal agency for energy
TYPES OF ENERGY
are various types of energy which, they include nuclear, electrical, thermal,
chemical, and radiant energy. In addition, gravitational potential energy and
kinetic energy that combines to produce mechanical energy.
Nuclear energy produces heat by
fission on nuclei, which is generated by heat engines. Nuclear energy is the world?s largest source
of emission-free energy. There are two processes in Nuclear energy fission and
fusion. In fission, the nuclei of uranium or plutonium atoms are split with the
release of energy. In fusion, energy is released when small nuclei combine or
fuse. The fission process is used in all present nuclear power plants, because
fusion cannot be controlled. Nuclear energy is used to heat steam engines. A
Nuclear power plant is a steam engine using uranium as its fuel, and it suffers
from low efficiency.
Electricity powers most factories and homes in our world. Some
things like flashlights and Game Boys use electricity that is stored in
batteries as chemical energy. Other items use electricity that comes from an
electrical plug in a wall socket. Electricity is the conduction or transfer of
energy from one place to another. The electricity is the flow of energy. Atoms
have electrons circling then, some being loosely attached. When electrons move
among the atoms of matter, a current of electricity is created.
energy is kinetic and potential energy, but it is associated with the random
motion of atoms in an object. The kinetic and potential energy associated with
this random microscopic motion is called thermal energy. A great amount of
thermal energy (heat) is stored in the world?s oceans. Each day, the oceans
absorb enough heat from the sun to equal the energy contained in 250 billion
barrels of oil (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Systems).
Chemical energy is a form of energy that comes from chemical
reactions, in which the chemical reaction is a process of oxidation. Potential
energy is released when a chemical reaction occurs, which is called chemical
energy. A car battery is a good example, because the chemical reaction
produces voltage and current to start the car. When a plant goes through a
process of photosynthesis, what the plant is left with more chemical energy
than the water and carbon dioxide. Chemical energy is used in science labs to
make medicine and to product power from gas.
Radiant energy exists in a range of wavelengths that extends
from radio waves that many be thousands of meters long to gamma
rays with wavelengths as short as a million-millionth (10? 12) of a
meter. Radiant energy is converted to chemical energy by the process of
The next two types of
energy go hand and hand, gravitational potential energy and kinetic
The term energy is motivated by the fact that potential energy and
kinetic energy are different aspects of the same thing,
exists whenever an object which has mass has a position within a force field.
The potential energy of an object in this case is given by the relation PE = mgh,
where PE is energy in joules, m is
the mass of the object, g is the
gravitational acceleration, and h is
the height of the object goes.
Kinetic energy is the energy of
motion. An object in motion, whether it be vertical or horizontal motion, has kinetic energy. There are
different forms of kinetic energy vibrational, which is the energy due to
vibrational motion, rotational, which is the energy due to rotational motion,
and transnational, which is the energy due to motion from one location to the
other. The equation for kinetic energy is ? mv2,
where m is the mass and v is the velocity. This equation shows
that the kinetic energy of an object is
directly proportional to the square of its speed.