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Chapter: Power Plant Engineering Fundamental

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Review of Thermodynamics Cycles Related to Power Plants

Thermodynamics is the science of many processes involved in one form of energy being changed into another. It is a set of book keeping principles that enable us to understand and follow energy as it transformed from one form or state to the other.

REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS CYCLES RELATED TO POWER PLANTS

Thermodynamics is the science of many processes involved in one form of energy being changed into another. It is a set of book keeping principles that enable us to understand and follow energy as it transformed from one form or state to the other.

 

The zeroth law of thermodynamics was enunciated after the first law. It states that if two bodies are each in thermal equilibrium with a third, they must also be in thermal equilibrium with each other. Equilibrium implies the existence of a situation in which the system undergoes no net charge, and there is no net transfer of heat between the bodies.

 

The first law of thermodynamics says that energy can?t be destroyed or created. When one energy form is converted into another, the total amount of energy remains constant. An example of this law is a gasoline engine. The chemical energy in the fuel is converted into various forms including kinetic en-ergy of motion, potential energy, chemical energy in the carbon dioxide, and water of the exhaust gas.

 

The second law of thermodynamics is the entropy law, which says that all physical processes proceed in such a way that the availability of the energy involved decreases. This means that no transfor-mation of energy resource can ever be 100% efficient. The second law declares that the material economy necessarily and unavoidably degrades the resources that sustain it. Entropy is a measure of disorder or chaos, when entropy increases disorder increases.

 

The third law of thermodynamics is the law of unattainability of absolute zero temperature, which says that entropy of an ideal crystal at zero degrees Kelvin is zero. It?s unattainable because it is the lowest temperature that can possibly exist and can only be approached but not actually reached. This law is not needed for most thermodynamic work, but is a reminder that like the efficiency of an ideal engine, there are absolute limits in physics.

 

The steam power plants works on modified rankine cycle in the case of steam engines and isentropic cycle concerned in the case of impulse and reaction steam turbines. In the case of I.C. Engines (Diesel Power Plant) it works on Otto cycle, diesel cycle or dual cycle and in the case of gas turbine it works on Brayton cycle, in the case of nuclear power plants it works on Einstein equation, as well as on the basic principle of fission or fusion. However in the case of non-conventional energy generation it is compli-cated and depends upon the type of the system viz., thermo electric or thermionic basic principles and theories et al.

 

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