I. Choose the correct answer
1. Which of the following activities of the people will not come under handicraft?
a. Carving statues out of stone
b. Making bangles with glass
c. Weaving silk sarees
d. Smelting of iron
[Answer: d) Smelting of iron]
2. The oldest industry in India was industry.
[Answer: a) Textile]
3. The woollen and leather factories became prominent in
[Answer: c) Kanpur]
4. What was the aim of first Three Five year Plans of India?
a. To control population growth
b. To reduce illiteracy rate
c. To built a strong industrial base
d. To empower the women
[Answer: c) To built a strong industrial base]
5. What was not the reason for the decline of Indian Industries?
a. Loss of royal patronage
b. Competition of machine made goods
c. Industrial policy of India
d. Trading policy of British
[Answer: c) Industrial policy of India]
II Fill in the blanks
1. Craft was the integral part in the life of the people.
2. Industrial revolution took place in England.
3. The Assam Tea Company was founded in 1839.
4. Jute industry was started in the Hoogly Valley at Rishra near Calcutta.
5. Suez Canal shortened the distance between Europe and India.
III Match the following
1. Tavernier - Drain Theory
2. Dacca - Paper mill
3. Dadabai Naoroji - Artisan
4. Ballygunj - Muslin
5. Smiths - French traveler
1. Thvernier – French traveller
2. Dacca - Muslin
3. Dadabai Naoroji - Drain Theory
4. Ballygunj – Paper mill
5. Smiths- Artisan
IV State True or False
1. India was famous for cotton and silk cloths. [Answer: True]
2. The railway was introduced in India by the British. [Answer: True]
3. Steel was first manufactured by modern methods at Jamshedpur. [Answer: False]
Correct statement: Steel was first manufactured by modern methods at Kulti in 1874.
4. The industrial policy of 1948, brought mixed economy in industrial sector. [Answer: True]
5. The tenth and eleventh five year plans witnessed a high growth rate of Agricultural production. [Answer: False]
Correct statement: The Tenth and Eleventh Five-Year Plans witnessed a high growth rate of industrial production.
V Consider the following the statements and tick (✓) the appropriate answer
1. Which of the following statements are correct?
i. According to Edward Baines, ‘The birth place of cotton manufacture is in England’.
ii. Before mechanised industry handicrafts was the second largest source of employment in rural India.
iii. Saurashtra was known for tin industry.
iv. Construction of Suez Canal made the
British goods cheaper in India.
a. i and ii are correct
b. ii and iv are correct
c. iii and iv are correct
d. i, ii and iii are correct
[Answer: b) ii and iv are correct]
2.Assertion (A): Indian handicrafts collapsed under the colonial rule.
Reason (R) : British made India as the producer of raw materials and markets for their finished products.
a. A is correct R is correct explanation of A
b. A is correct and R is not the correct explanation of A
c. Both A and R is correct
d. Both A and R is wrong
[Answer: a) A is correct R is correct explanation of A]
3. Which one of the following is wrongly matched?
a. Bernier - Shajahan
b. Cotton mill - Ahmadabad
c. TISCO - Jamshedpur
d. Economic Liberalisation – 1980
[Answer: d) Economic Liberalisation - 1980]
VI Answer the following in one or two sentences
1. What are the traditional handicrafts industries of India?
Answer: (i) The traditional handicrafts industries of India are textiles, woodwork, ivory, stone cutting, leather, fragrance wood, metal work and jewellery.
(ii) The village artisans such as potters, weavers, smiths produced articles and utensils.
2. Write about the drain theory.
Answer: The Drain theory of Dadabai Naoroji was the first to acknowledge that the poverty of the Indian people was due to the British exploitation of India’s resources and the drain of India’s wealth to Britain.
3. Name the inventions which made the production of textiles on large scale.
Answer: The invention of cotton gin, flying shuttle, spinning jenny and steam engine in England, which made the production of textiles on large scale.
4. Write a short note on Confederation of Indian Industry.
(i) The Confederation of Indian Industry is a business association in India.
(ii) CIT is a non-Government, not-for-profit, industry-led and industry - managed organisation.
(iii) It was founded in 1985.
5. What is de-industrialisation?
Answer: The process of disruption of traditional Indian crafts and decline in national income has been referred to as de-industrialisation.
VII Answer the following in detail
1. How was the trading policy of British caused for the decline of the Indian Industries?
(i) All the policies implemented by the British government in India had a deep impact on India’s indigenous industries.
(ii) Free trade policy followed by the East India Company compelled the Indian traders to sell their goods below the market prices.
(iii) This forced many craftsmen to abandon their ancestral handicraft talents.
(iv) East India company’s aim was to buy the maximum quantity of Indian manufactured goods at the cheapest price and sell them to other European countries for a huge profit.
(v) This affected the traditional Indian industry.
(vi) The British followed the policy of protective tariffs that was much against the trading interests of India.
(vii) Heavy duties were charged on Indian goods in Britain, but at the same time, the English goods entering India were charged only nominal duties.
2. Write in detail about the plantation industries.
(i) The plantation industry was the first to attract the Europeans. This provide jobs on large scale.
(ii) In reality, it could meet the increasing demands for tea, coffee and indigo by the British Society.
(iii) The Assam Tea Company was founded in 1839.
(iv) Coffee plantation also started simultaneously.
(v) As the tea plantation was the most important industry of Eastern India, coffee plantation became the centre of activities in South India.
(vi) The Third important plantation, which gave birth to factory was jute.
(vii) All these Industries were controlled by many former employees of the British
East India Company.
3. Explain Industrial development after 1991 reforms.
(i) The year 1991 ushered a new era of the economic liberalisation.
(ii) India took major decision to improve the performance of the industrial sector.
(iii) The Tenth and Eleventh five year plans witnessed a high growth rate of industrial production.
(iv) The abolition of Industrial licensing, dismantling of price controls, dilution of reservation of small scale industries.
(v) Virtual abolition of monopoly law enabled Indian industry to flourish.
(vi) The new policy welcomes foreign investments.
1. How do handicraft products differ from machine made products?
Handicraft: Something you make with your own hands, especially an ornament or decoration, is a handicraft. Instead, items made by artisans like pottery, handwoven blankets, handmade jewellery and quilts stitched by hand are all examples of handicrafts.
Machine made Products : Machine made Products are produced faster and all are exactly the same. Machine manufacturing is faster and more economical. Also machine made goods are cheaper than hand made goods.
IX Mark the following places on the outline map of India
9. New Delhi
X Project and Activity
1. Name the industries in your state and divide them into Agro based metal based and forest based.
2. Prepare a project on air, water, and land pollution due to the industrial development in India.
3. Make a power point presentation on the industrial development of India and highlight the main features of those developments.