'Motivation is an essential condition of Learning process,' says Melton.
'Motivation represents the antecedent dynamic background for both original behaviour and it' s modifications' says Gates.
Motivation is an art if attracting others towards oneself. In many of our activities. Whether personal, social, or national, motivation is present directly or indirectly.
Motivation has become an art of giving incentives to others for doing something; art of making appeals in order to attract others towards oneself. Needless to add that motivation is useful in nursing profession.
In the field of education ends and means are complementary to each other. When we attain something, that something becomes a means for attracting some other thing higher than that.
Thus we are continuously engaged in obtaining our goals and using the same as a means for attaining something higher end.
So what was end once becomes a means for another time. Needless to remark, that a number of small ends go to formulate a bigger end.
So we are consistently engaged in using an end as a motivation. In education this type of continuous arousal of motivation is of great importance.
There may not be any relationship necessarily between intensity and duration of motivation. If motivation is very intense, the goal is likely to be achieved sooner.
Then if duration will be shorter and if the goal of an intensive motivation is not achieved soon, its duration will be continued till the achievement of the same. Thus an intensive motivation is likely to control the human behaviour for a longer duration.
The sphere of motivation depends upon the environment. Our lives will come to an end and all our activities; will be stopped if we do not feel motivated for one thing or another.
Kinds of Motivation:
Kinds of motivation are
natural and artificial,
intrinsic and extrinsic.
Automatic actions and reflexes, habit, instincts, feelings, desire interests, suggestion, imitation are natural motivation.
To acquire knowledge, to win affection of the person we love, to obtain a post, to acquire confidence of others, to obtain leadership and popularity may be the artificial motivations for an individual.
These may also be regarded as natural because they are
found in most of us and many of our activities are guided by them. Artificial motivation have their base in some of our natural motivation, instincts, urges, drives or natural needs.
The physical , mental and social development of the individual should be rightly understood for ascertaining what type of artificial motivation will be more appropriate.
The individual will not feel motivated, unless he has a goal to achieve. A model before him will further energize him. Thus he will feel inner striving and this striving will be purposive.
So in the presence of a goal, model and purposive striving, a student may be guided to achieve great heights.
The patient must be given a correct knowledge of his progress in order to motivate him further, when he realizes that he is progressing well he puts in greater efforts. Reward is a great motivation.
An individual is naturally desirous of obtaining reward on his successful performance. The fear of punishment goads the individual to follow the right path. Punishment serves as a powerful motivation to follow the right path.
Maslow' s proposes a comprehensive theory of need of gratification and growth motivation including fundamental physiological needs.
The main reason why disadvantaged and poor children refuse to be motivated in the classrooms to learn is that their basic bodily needs remain unsatisfied.
Under safety needs such as security routine regularity, children do need discipline within their levels of understanding in order to perceive an orderly and organized world.
Often under achievers are the resultant of lack of love and understanding. Esteem needs cover confidence, independence, recognition, attention and appreciation.
When the above needs are a satisfied the classroom climate is synergetic and help the individual to actualize his inner potentialities.
Just as Maslow, Murray gives an impressive list of
sentience as human motives.
Achievement motive is a type of social motive. It appears to be a widely generalized level of aspiration, aiming at excellence in all under taken activities.
It involves an exalted self-esteem and self-image and it is a learned motive, acquired in the process of growing up and living in a society. In this motivation, the goals set by individuals themselves have energizing properties to motivate behaviour.
McClelland, in her study on measurement and application of the achievement motive, symbolically expressed in an arch (need for Achievement) and explained the social origins of achievement motivation and its implications for social progress.
McClelland also listed conditions for effective pupil motivation. These are,
let pupils understand reasons for developing certain motives,
let motives be realistic, link motives with activities and daily life events,
commit pupil progress give pupils honest and warm support, encourage self study and make pupil feel that he belongs to some successful group.