'Psychology' is a branch of science dealing with knowledge of mind and soul. It plays a vital role in taking care of the patients in nursing.
The knowledge of basic principles of psychology is significant in taking care of nurse herself and also in her interaction with the patient.
The nurses should understand that the fulfillment of basic needs as given below is imperative in achieving one' s own self actualisation.
In 1943, five types of human need a hierarchy, from the physiological through safety needs. Love needs. Esteem needs and culminating in a need for self-actualization has been proposed by Maslow, the psychologist.
The lowest in the motivation hierarchy includes need for water, oxygen, food, sleep, activity, sex sensory satisfaction etc. A man is never satisfied with all his needs. If one need is satisfied another need will arise and it is human tendency.
If physiological needs tend to be met consistently and more or less completely the organism expresses the next dwell i.e. the safety needs. We experience safety needs only when there is a threat to its existences.
However it is possible to perceive psychological threat, just as one may perceive physical threat. The reaction of such perceptions leads to real conditions of neurosis. Safety needs are decent housing and employment.
According to Maslow satisfaction of these needs will open the door for expression of the next level of needs.
Love needs encompass all desire for relations with people. They include acceptance by others and achievement of some status within group by which the individual is accepted.
Maslow states that lack of satisfaction, in this area is most common source of maladjustment and consequent psychopathological conditions.
Each of us has need for self-respect and a need for the respect of others. The former expresses it self as a device for achievement, adequate confidence and the later recognition, attention and rewards from others.
When unsatisfied, we feel confident and while when thwarted we feel inferior and helpless. It is an expression of lack of satisfaction of esteem.
Self actualization needs
Self-actualization goes beyond esteem because it emphasizes becoming whatever one must be. Esteem can be achieved without self-actualization.
Self-actualization means fulfilling our potential since this never occurs the need can never be satisfied. As the progress is made new possibilities are opened by ones potential and this further striving toward (self) actualization.
The five needs described above are actually broad categories each of which may contain specific expression. At whatever level, man is never completely satisfied, he is constantly needs, since some needs will be partially satisfied and others partially unsatisfied. Further there are needs of adult than those of children.
However such needs are emerging in children. So one must interpret, action in terms of relevant needs and make it possible for the child to achieve satisfaction.
If children find physiological safety, and love needs at least partially satisfied, they will evidence a need for esteem and this may find proper expression through academic achievement.
Where need for esteem is not present, that means other lower needs in the hierarchy are being insufficiently met.The teacher must first arrange appropriate conditions for their satisfaction, whether in or out of school. Once meeting, esteem needs will be of no problem, though their satisfaction will depend upon self-group variables.