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Chapter: 11th 12th std standard Class Nursing Health Care Hospital Hygiene Higher secondary school College Notes

Hospital and Nursing - Charting

The nurses are required to report and record their observations. She reports her findings to the professional nurse and to the physician.



The nurses are required to report and record their observations. She reports her findings to the professional nurse and to the physician.


Recording of the observations is called charting. The nurses should chart their observations correctly. All chartings should be brief, concise, account and complete.


Charting helps physicians, nurses and others to under-stand the condition and progress of the patient. The chart is also used for legal procedures and research.


A patient's chart includes records maintained by physicians and nurses. A nurse should be able to maintain records related to nursing and she should be able to understand the notes made by physicians and others.


Safety and Comfortable Environment


The environment in which the patient is placed should be comfortable and safe and it should contribute to his well being and should not retard his recovery.


Safety and comfort measures


Safety means protection from possible injury. Many factors contribute towards the safety of patients in the hospital.

The hospital buildings should be structurally sound for ensuring safety for patients with physical limitations such as, blind, aged or handicapped.


The nursing personnel must be safety conscious and they should take all efforts to prevent accidents in the hospital. She should report all accidents promptly and take measures to prevent them from happening again. A register should be maintained for recording accidents.


Mechanical Devices for comfort measures


To hospitals use many mechanical devices for ensuring safety/patients.

Bed bars (side rails) are used to prevent patients from falling out of bed. Patients who requires this safety measure are post operative patients, unconscious, semi-conscious mentally disturbed, sedated, blind or children or very old patients.

Back rest: These are usually made of metals. These are used to support the back of the patient in upright position.

Over bed table: The table such as the cardiac table is placed in front of the patient and the top of the table is adjusted to the desired height. As pillow is arranged on the top of the table so that the patient can lean forward on it for support. When he wants to take food, read or write.

Foot-boards: (Foot- rests): These are made of wood and are L shaped, so that one end can be slipped under the mattress to hold the other end in a firm upright position. The patient is placed in supine position to rest the bottoms of the feet flat against the surface of the foot-board (covered with sheet). These are used to prevent foot drop by maintaining good alignment.


Sand-bags: These are canvas, rubber or plastic bags filled with sand and are 1,5 and 10 lbs in weight. These are used to immobilize the body part, placing them snugly next to the part. Eg. On either side of the feet to maintain the position of the feet on the foot-board, immobilize the fractured limb.

Blocks (shock blocks): These are made of wood, may be high or low. These are placed under the foot of the bed for various reasons. Eg. surgical shock, traction and postural drainage. This may be placed under the head of bed to promote drainage and improve cerebral circulation.

Hand rolls : These are made of cloth that is rolled into a cylinder about 4-5 inches long and 2-3 inches in diameter and stuffed firmly. These are used to keep the fingers form being held in a tight fist leading to flexion contracture in patients who are unable to move the hands due to paralysis, injury or disease

Thigh rolls: These are made by folding a sheet to a desired length of 2-3 feet and then rolled into a tight cylinder. These are used to support the hips and thighs, preventing them outward rotation and keeping the feet in good alignment, in case of paralysis, fracture of the femur or hip surgery. To use the roll, place the lose end (flap) under the patients hips and thighs with the role  under the flap end and then tucking snugly along the hip and thigh


Cradle: These are mostly semicircular in shape, made of wood or metal. These are used to prevent the weight of top bedclothes on patient' s feet and toes. To use the cradle, Place it over the bottom bedclothes and the top bedclothes are then brought over the cradle. These are used for patients affected by burns.

Restraints are devices used to prevent agitated patients, persons who get out of bed at night in their sleep and small children, from falling out of bed.


Wire mesh for windows and doors are fixed to prevent insects.

Common Hazards


Patients should be safeguarded from fire accidents and from careless application of heat. Fire accidents occur mainly due to allowing patients to smoke in bed, use of faulty electric appliances, and careless use of oxygen cylinders.

Patient may get injured from careless application of hot water bags, electric pads and application of medications on the skin.


Poisonous drugs should be kept under lock and key with specific red label.


Patients may come to harm through bacteriological sources, insects and rodents. Food and water should be made safe for consumption. Insects and rodents should be eliminated.


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11th 12th std standard Class Nursing Health Care Hospital Hygiene Higher secondary school College Notes : Hospital and Nursing - Charting |

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