Admission of the patient
The entrance of a patient into a health care agency such as a hospital or a private clinic is termed as admission. A patient enters the hospital by himself or he may be brought to the hospital by his relatives, friends, neighbours or others.
Mentally ill patients, persons who have tried to commit suicide and accident patients are admitted through a legal process.
All ill person enters the hospital to get his disorder cured whereas a healthy individual gets admitted into a hospital for a day or two for investigations and observations and in order to find out whether he is suffering from any illness which has not been manifested by any external signs and symptoms.
Patients who have become seriously ill suddenly, come to the hospital without having had any time to settle their family and work affairs.
Hence, they are not only worried and anxious about their illness, but also are upset about various other problems affecting their family.
Nurses must understand their physical and mental problems and be very kind and understanding.
Need for good reception of the patient.
A nurse has an important role to play in the reception of the patient to the hospital. The following are the purposes of this procedure.
To prepare the patient both physically and mentally for his stay in the hospital.
To help the patient to be comfortable and to provide him with a clean and safe environment.
To give a good impression of the hospital and its services so that the patient will fully co-operate with the treatment and nursing care.
A patient may be coming to hospital for the first time. He leaves his familiar home surrounding and his loved ones and comes to an unknown place and to unknown people. Any change in human life is anxiety producing and is viewed with fear.
Added to this, his physical condition gives him fear and anxiety. Hence, it is the nurse's duty to receive the patient, kindly sympathetically and with an understanding of his illness. If he is admitted, he is given a diet sheet and sent to the ward. If he is too ill and needs immediate attention he is given emergency treatment and then transported to the ward.
As soon as the patient comes to the ward, receive him, his relatives and his friends as if you are receiving your guests into your home. Ask them to be seated while you prepare the bed ready for the patient.
If the patient is in a serious condition, the ward nurse is informed in advance about the arrival of the patient, so that the patient does not have to wait till the bed is made ready.
Need for orientation to place and people
Inform the patient and his relatives about the hospital routine, the hospital rules, the general set up of the ward and the personnel working in the ward. Inform the patient's relatives about the time of visiting hours and supply them with visiting passes.
If the patient is seriously ill, give the relative a special pass so that he will be able to stay with the patient in the hospital.
Need for admission assessment
Do a good assessment of his physical condition in order to plan his care. If his physical state needs immediate treatment report to physician and prepare your patient for physical examination and carry out the treatment, which the physician prescribes after the physical examination.
Need for safeguarding patient's personal belongings:-
It is always good policy to discourage patients to keep valuable things and money with them. Send the valuables home through relatives. If he does not have anyone with him, enter the description of items in the register and send the valuables to the office for safe custody. Get the patient's signature or thumb impression in the register. However, inform the patient that he will get back his valuables on discharge.
It is important that you take care of the patient's clothing. You should see that the clothing are cleaned and stored away with proper label or send them home for a fresh set of clean clothes.
However, encourage, patients to use hospital clothing. If a patient is suffering from infectious disease, see that the clothing are disinfected and cleaned before they are sent home or stored away.
Need for personal hygiene
As a nurse it is important that you attend the personal hygiene of the patient on admission. If the patient is able to have a bath in the bathroom, he can be given a bath.
If he is unable to walk, you can give him a bed-bath. You should carry out other aspects of your patient's personal hygiene such as care of hair, mouth and nails.
Especially in our country, the patients who are ignorant and illiterate do not see to their personal hygiene when they become sick. So when a patient comes to the hospital, this need has to be attended to on his admission.
During the process of cleaning your patient, you get an opportunity to examine and observe him thoroughly and talk to him so that you will be able to know about his physical and mental condition.