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Chapter: 11th 12th std standard Class Nursing Health Care Hospital Hygiene Higher secondary school College Notes

Types of Health Care Agencies and services

Out patient services -Patients who don require hospitalization can receive health care in a clinic.

Types of Health Care Agencies


Health care is provided in various settings.


1.     Out patient services -Patients who don require hospitalization can receive health care in a clinic. An out patient setting is designed to be convenient and easily accessible to the patient. Hospital Settings (To get the material) Out patient services are generally directed at primary and secondary health centers


2.     Clinics - Clinics involve a department in a hospital where patients not requiring hospitalization, receive medical care.


3.     Institutions - Hospitals - Hospital have been the major agency of health care system. Hospitals are classified as


a.     Public


b.     Private


c.      Military


4.     A Public Hospital are financed and operated by the government agency at the local, state or national level. Hospitals provide services at free of cost.

5.     Private Hospitals are owned and operated by churches, corporations, individuals and charitable organizations. Private hospitals are operated on a for-profit-basis.


6.     Military Hospitals provide medical care for the armed forces and their families.


Health care services.


1.  Health promotion


a.   Prenatal classes


b.  Nutrition counselling


c.   Family Planning


d.  Stress management


2.  Illness prevention


a.   Screening programs (Eg. Hypertension, breast cancer)


b.  Immunization


c.   Occupational health and safety measures


d.  Mental health counseling


e.   AIDS control program.


3.  Primary care


a.   School health units


b.  Routine physical examination


c.   Follow up for chronic illnesses(eg - Diabetes, Epilepsy)


4.  Diagnosis


a.   Radiological procedure ( Eg. CT scans, X ray Studies)


b.  Physical examination


c.   Laboratory investigations


5.  Treatment


a.   Surgical intervention

b.     Laser therapies


c.      Pharmacological therapy


6.     Rehabilitation


a.     Cardiovascular programs


b.    Sports medicine


c.      Mental illness program




Nurses make up the largest employment group in the health care delivery system of in India.


Nursing is the process of recognizing, understanding and meeting the health needs of a person or society.


Nursing process is a deliberate intellectual activity, whereby the practice of nursing is approached in an orderly, systematic manner to assist the patient to achieve and maintain health.


The nursing process consists of five inter related phases such as assessment, nursing diagnosis, planning, implementation and evaluation.


Health is a state of physical, mental and social wellbeing, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.


Illness is a state in which a person' s physical, emotional, intellectual, social or spiritual functioning is diminished or impaired.


Internal variables such as developmental stage, intellectual background and emotional and spiritual factors influence the health beliefs and practices of individuals.


External variables such as family practices socioeconomic factors and cultural background also influence the health beliefs and practices of individuals.


Smoking, nutrition, exercise, substance abuse and family relationships also affect patient' s health status.

The health care delivery system in India has three main links Central, state and local or peripheral.


International health relations, administration of central institutes, drugs standards, vital statistics immigration and emigration are the main functions of Central Govt under union list.


Control of communicable diseases, prevention of food adulteration, labour welfare and economic and social planning are the functions of central Govt. under the concurrent list.


National Medical library, ICMR, central Health Education Bureau and Central Govt Health Services are under the control of Directorate General of Health Services.


The Central Council of Health makes proposals for legislation relating to medical and public health matters. Provision of medical care, preventive health services and pilgrimage within the state are the responsibilities of the State Government.


Sub-division, Tehsils, Community Development Blocks, Municipalities and Corporations, Villages and Panchayats are 6 administrative areas within each district.


Sanitation, water supply, street lighting, education and registration of births and deaths are the functions of Municipal Board.


The Panchayat Raj is a 3-tier structure of rural local - self government in India.


The health services are covered by the public hospitals, private hospitals and military hospitals.



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