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Chapter: Organic Chemistry: Alcohols, phenols, and thiols

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Preparation of alcohols

Functional groups such as alkyl halides, carboxylic acids, esters, alkenes, aldehydes, ketones, and ethers can be transformed into alcohols.

PREPARATION OF ALCOHOLS

Key Notes

Functional group transformation

Functional groups such as alkyl halides, carboxylic acids, esters, alkenes, aldehydes, ketones, and ethers can be transformed into alcohols.

C–C bond formation

Alcohols can be formed from epoxides, aldehydes, ketones, esters, and acid chlorides as a consequence of C–C bond formation with Grignard or organolithium reagents.

 

Functional group transformation

Alcohols can be synthesized by nucleophilic substitution of alkyl halides,  hydrolysis  of  esters  ,  reduction  of  carboxylic  acids  or  esters , reduction of aldehydes or ketones, electrophilic addition of alkenes, hydroboration of alkenes, or substitution of ethers.

C–C bond formation

Alcohols can also be formed from epoxides, aldehydes, ketones, esters , and acid chlorides  as a consequence of C–C bond formation. These reactions involve the addition of carbanion equivalents through the use of Grignard or organolithium reagents and are described in detail elsewhere in the text.

 

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