PREPARATION OF ALCOHOLS
Functional groups such as alkyl halides, carboxylic acids, esters, alkenes, aldehydes, ketones, and ethers can be transformed into alcohols.
Alcohols can be formed from epoxides, aldehydes, ketones, esters, and acid chlorides as a consequence of C–C bond formation with Grignard or organolithium reagents.
Alcohols can be synthesized by nucleophilic substitution of alkyl halides, hydrolysis of esters , reduction of carboxylic acids or esters , reduction of aldehydes or ketones, electrophilic addition of alkenes, hydroboration of alkenes, or substitution of ethers.
Alcohols can also be formed from epoxides, aldehydes, ketones, esters , and acid chlorides as a consequence of C–C bond formation. These reactions involve the addition of carbanion equivalents through the use of Grignard or organolithium reagents and are described in detail elsewhere in the text.