Points to Remember
• Movement helps to perform necessary functions in an organism. It can be both voluntary and involuntary.
• Strong muscles and light bones work together to help the birds fly. They fly by flapping their wings.
• Fish swim by forming loops alternately on two sides of the body.
• Snakes slither on the ground by looping sideways. A large number of bones and associated muscles push the body forward.
• The body and legs of cockroaches have hard coverings forming an outer skeleton. The muscles of the breast connected with three pairs of legs and two pairs of wings help the cockroach to walk and fly.
• Earthworms move by alternate extension and contraction of the body using muscles. Tiny bristles on the underside of the body help in gripping the ground.
• Bones and cartilage form the skeleton of the human body. They give the frame and shape to the body and help in movement. It protects the inner organs.
• The skeleton comprises of the skull, the back bone, ribs and the breast bone, shoulder and hip bones, and the bones of hands and legs.
• The bones are moved by alternate contractions and relaxations of two sets of muscles.
• The bone joints are of various kinds depending on the nature of joints and direction of movement they allow.
1. Antagonist muscle Muscles that oppose the action of one another.
2. Appendicular The arms and legs.
3. Axial The trunk and head.
4. Biceps Any skeletal muscle having two origins.
5. Cardiac muscle Involuntary, striated muscle that constitutes the main tissue of the walls of the heart.
6. Cartilage Tough elastic tissue, mostly converted to bone in adults.
7. Femur The thigh bone of the human skeleton.
8. Ligaments Bands of tough, elastic connective tissue that surround a joint to give support andlimit the joint's movement.
9. Pectoral girdle The skeletal framework which provides attachment for the forelimbs of or relatingto the chest or thorax.
10. Pelvic girdle Hips, a foundation for the lower limb.
11. Skeletal muscle Voluntary muscles that move bones and produce movement.
12. Sternum Long flat bone located in the central part of the chest.
13. Tendon Tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone andis capable of withstanding tension.
1. Guyton and Hall. J. E, (2006). Textbook of Medical Physiology- Eleventh Edition Elsevier saunders. International Edition.
2.Sembulingam.K and Prema Sembulingam., (2012) . Essential of Medical Physiology 6th Edition.
3. R.L. Kotpal (2010). Modern text book of zoology: Inveretbrates. 12th Edition.
2. https://kidshealth.org/en/kids/muscles. html
4. https://www.visible body.com