Organic farming is a system of agricultural production which relies on animal manure, organic waste, crop rotation, legumes and biological pest control. It avoids use of synthetic fertilizer, pesticides and livestock additives. Organic inputs have certain benefits, such as enriching soil for microbes.
Organic production is a holistic system designed to optimize the productivity and fitness of diverse communities within the agro-ecosystem, including soil organisms, plants, livestock and people. The principal goal of organic production is to develop enterprises that are sustainable and harmonious with environment. The general principles of organic farming are:
1. Protect the environment, minimize soil degradation and erosion, decrease
pollution, optimize biological productivity and promote a sound state of health.
2. Maintain long-term soil fertility by optimizing conditions for biological activity within the soil
3. Maintain biological diversity within the system
4. Recycle materials and resources to the greatest extent possible within the enterprise
5. Provide attentive care that promotes the health and meets the behavioural needs of livestock
6. Prepare organic products, emphasizing careful processing, and handling methods in order to maintain the organic integrity and vital qualities of the products at all stages of production.
7. Rely on renewable resources in locally organized agricultural systems.
Nearly 50 percent of the irrigated land in the arid and semi-arid regions has some degree of soil salinization problems. The occurrence of accumulation of excess salt/ acid in the root zone, results in a partial or complete loss of soil productivity and such soil is defined as ‘Problem (alkali, saline & acid) Soils’ and exist mainly in arid and semi-arid regions.
The alkali soils are predominantly located in the Indo-Gangetic plains encompassing States of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and partly in States like, Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.