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Non Communicable Diseases - Causes, Risk factor, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnosis, Management, Complication - Occupational Disorders | 12th Nursing : Chapter 3 : Non Communicable Diseases

Chapter: 12th Nursing : Chapter 3 : Non Communicable Diseases

Occupational Disorders

Silicosis, Computer Vision Syndrome - Occupational Disorders - Non Communicable Diseases



·         Silicosis

·         Computer Vision Syndrome


1. Silicosis

Silicosis, also known as Pottor’s rot is a form of occupational lung disease caused by inhalation of crystalline silica dust and is marked by inflammation and scarlingin forms of nodular lesions in the upper lobes of the lungs.


Silicosis is caused by exposure to crystalline silica and breathing in tiny bits of silica, which comes from chipping ,cutting , drilling ,or grinding soil ,sand , granite ,or other minerals.

Signs and Symptoms

·            Dyspnea exacerbated by exertion

·            Cough, often persistent and sometime severe

·            Fatigue

·            Tachypnea

·            Loss of appetite and weight loss

·            Chest

·            Fever

·            Gradual dark shallow rifts in nails eventually leading to crack as protein fibre with in nails beds are destroyed

In advance cases:

·           Cyanosis

·           Corpulmonale

·           Respiratory insufficiency


            History collection

            Physical examination

            Chest X-ray reveals findings consistent with silicosis

            Pulmonary function testing: may reveal airflow limitation, restrictive defects, reduced diffusion capacity, mixed defects or may be normal (in uncomplicated)


Silicosis is an irreversible condition with no cure. Management options currently focus on alleviating the symptoms and preventing complications. These include:

            Stopping further exposure to silica and other lung irritants, including tobacco.

            Cough suppressants

            Antibiotics for bacterial lung infection

            TB prophylaxis for those with positive tuberculosis skin test

            Chest physiotherapy to help the bronchial drainage of mucus

            Oxygen administration to treat hypoxemia, if present

            Bronchodilators to facilitate breathing  Lung Transplantation

Nursing Management

            Providing nursing care in the acute and chronic stages

            Health education regarding the prevention of the disease


            Rigorous dust control measures like wearing mask improving the ventilation of work place

            Water spray is often used where dust is present

            Dust can also be controlled by dry air filtering


2. Computer Vision Syndrome

About two hundred years before, the word “computer” started to appear in the dictionary. Some people even didn’t know what is a computer? However, most of the people today not just knowing what is a computer, but understand how to use a computer. Therefore, computer becomes more and more popular and important to our society. We can use computer everywhere and they are very useful and helpful to our life. But still we are facing a problems like computer vision syndrome. Let us learn in detail.

Computer vision syndrome (CVS) is strain on the eyes that happens when you use a computer or digital device (Smart phone, Tablets, Laptop) for prolonged periods of time.


            Lighting in the room

            Distance from the screen

            Glare on the screen

            Seating posture

            Angle of your head

Signs & Symptoms


            Dry eyes


            Neck and

            Blurred vision

            Shoulder pain


With these simple practices, you can reduce the effects of computer vision syndrome:

            Make sure the lighting in the room is comfortable on the eyes, and prevents you from starting into glare on the computer screen

            Position the digital display so that your head is in a naturally comfortable position while using take breaks

            A few minutes away from the computer can go a long way when it comes to your eyes. Think of it similarly to the way you take stretch breaks for your arms and back

            Make sure your seat is comfortable. A comfortable chair with support for your neck and back will help you avoid neck and shoulder strain commonly associated with computer vision syndrome

Computer eye strain steps for relief

            Get comprehensive eye exam

            Use proper lighting

            Minimize glare

            Upgrade your display

            Adjust your computer display setting

            Blink more often

            Exercise your eyes

            Take frequent breaks

            Modify your work stations

            Consider computer eyewear

The Role of the NCD Nurse

            To identify patients at high risk of developing an NCD through risk assessment procedures for chronic diseases like diabetes and hypertension.

            To provide advice, and help those with an already diagnosed condition to manage their disease which ranged from health advice to social issues that concerned participants.

            To provide direct services to their clients who included facilitation of support groups, health education, distribution of medication as well as rehabilitation exercises.

            As facilitators of support groups consisting of clients with diabetes and/ or hypertension.

            To provide education pertaining to nutrition in the management of NCDs as well as explaining about risk factors, symptoms and preventive measures for diabetes and hypertension.

            To distribute medications for selected clients assigned in their households and at the designated support groups.

            For rehabilitation services in assisting clients with rehabilitation exercises including other support groups enabling them to better manage their conditions.

            To link clients with the health system where the high risk cases are identified and then referred the clients to the nearest health facilities. Referred clients were given a referral letter by the nurse to present to the health facility.

            Capacity building through peer educator where NCD nurses learn skills required to fulfil daily tasks ‘on-the-job’.

            Administrative role includes completing forms with information relating to the clients on a daily basis. In addition, completing daily statistic sheets of clients and submitting to the coordinators on the next day. NCD nurses are also responsible for collecting the signatures of clients when they receive medication, so as to keep a record of the clients who have collected their medication.


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