Osteoarthritis is a very common chronic disorder involving the joints. It is a degenerative change in the joints. The degenerative changes take place because the rubbing of the joint surfaces causes a wearing away and disintegration of the tissues.
Age: people above the age of 45 have the risk for developing osteoarthritis. It is, however, most commonly found in people over age of 65.
Gender: This disease of osteoarthritis is more common in women, particularly after the age of 55
Obesity: This can be one of the causes for osteoarthritis as every kilogram puts three extra kilogram of pressure on knees
Injury : Joint injuries are an increased risk of developing osteoarthritis
Weakness of muscles: Weak thigh muscles lead to osteoarthritis knee joint pain.
· Knee pain
· Joint stiffness
· Loss of movement
· X–ray of affected joints
· Serum CRP
· Serum ESR, RA factor
· Exercise to strengthen muscles
· Arthodesis (practised earlier)
· TKR (Total Knee Replacement)
· Use knee cap supports
· Use hot water formentation to relieve pain
· Wear comfortable, fitting shoes to reduce stress on joints
· Walk regularly to keep yourself active, it helps to avoid stiffness
· Maintain a healthy weight to reduce strain and pain in your knee
· Don’t lift heavy weights, it puts stress on the knees
· Don’t sit cross- legged
· Avoid prolonged activities that put strain on the knee like gardening
· Avoid jerky movements
· Don’t smoke. Research shows that smoking leads to joint pain along with other damaging effects
Osteoporosis is a disease characterised by low bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue, which can lead to increased risk of fracture.
· Lack of exercise
· Lack of calcium and vitamin D3 Diet calcium / vitamin D deficiency
· Osteoporosis means “porous bones”
· Height loss or dull pain in the bones or muscles
· Limited movement
Osteoporosis is a reduction in skeletal mass caused by an imbalance between bone reabsorption and bone formation. A change in either that is increased bone reabsorption or decreased bone formation may result is osteoporosis.
· Blood: Test Calcium & Phosphorus
· Low calcium diet
· Lack of physical activity
· Family history
· Women are more likely to develop osteoposis
· Anticonvulsant medications
· Hyper parathyroidism
· Neoplastic disease – cancer
· Medication – vitamins and calcium Dietary supplements Weight bearing exercises