SUGAR, JAGGERY AND HONEY
Sugar, honey and jaggery are sweetening agents. They are added to beverages and foods to increase palatability. Sugar is made up of glucose and fructose.
It is a source of energy providing 4 kilocalories per gram. Jaggery is made from sugar cane juice after processing it. Jaggery is a fair source of iron. Palmyra palm, date palm or coconut palm is used for it.
Honey is the golden coloured syrup made by bees from the nectar of flowers. It is a mixture of glucose and fructose.
The nutritive value of sugar, honey and jiggery are
Nutritive value per 100 g
Item : Energy(k cal)-Carbohydrate(g)-Calcium(mg)- Iron(mg)
Sugar 398 99.4 12 0.15
Jaggery 383 95.0 80 2.65
Honey 313 79.5 5 0.69
Source : Gopalan. C.,Rama Sastri B.V., Balasubramanian S.C., (1991) - Nutritive value of Indian Foods, National
Institute of Nutrition, ICMR, Hyderabad.
Preparation of crystalline confectionary Fondant:
Two hundred grams of sugar is dissolved in 120 ml of water and boiled till 113 o C - 114 o C. Cream of tartar and glucose are added and the mixture is concentrated by boiling until it reaches appropriate doneness.
The doneness of the candy is determined by measuring the temperature (113 o C - 114 o C) of the boiling solution. Another method of measuring doneness in the making of candies is by dropping a small portion of boiling syrup into very cold water allowing the syrup to cool and evaluating its consistency. In the case of fondant it is a soft ball shape.
The boiling solution is then poured on a smooth flat surface and allowed to cool at 40 o C. Then it is beaten until it becomes a creamy mixture and ripened for 24 hours to promote smoothness.
In the preparation of fudge, butter and milk are added to prevent crystallisation. Fat and sugar are added to the solution after it reaches the boiling point (117 o C). Apart from these changes, the principles of making fudge do not differ from those of making fondant.
Preparation of Non-Crystalline Confectionary
Crystallisation of sugar is prevented by cooking the solution to a high temperature so that the product hardens before crystals are formed. During cooking a brown colour develops due to the caramelisation of sugar.
Caramels are made by adding corn syrup, fats and concentrated milk products to the sugar syrup.
Brittles are made by melting and caramelisation of sugar. Toffee is made from sugar syrup with the addition of cream of tartar, vinegar or lemon juice. Gelatin is used in the preparation of spongy candies like marsh mellows.
Artificial sweeteners are those substances used as substitutes for sugar.
Characteristics of an ideal sweetener :
· sweet or sweeter than sucrose.
· pleasant taste with no after taste.
· readily soluble
does not promote dental caries.
Low calorie sweeteners : Polyols :
Polyols occur in nature and are also synthesised from easily accessible carbohydrates such as starch, sucrose, glucose, invert sugar, xylose and lactose.
Sugar alcohols (xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, lactitol and isomalt) are polyols. They are white crystalline, water soluble powders. Sorbitol is used in chocolates and diabetic foods. Mannitol is used in sugar free chewing gum and xylitol is used in pastries, jam, ice cream. The average calorific value is
· k cal / g.
Non-caloric Sweeteners :
It is 30 times sweeter than sucrose. It was banned as studies revealed its role in the development of tumors.
Acelsulfame - K :
It can be used in cooked or baked products. It is a synthetic derivative of acetoacetic acid.
It is a dipeptide based amide. It is 2000 times sweeter than sucrose.
It is made by combining two amino acids - aspartic acid and phenyl alanine. Methyl alcohol is then added to form a methyl ester. It is a white, crystalline powder that has a sugar like taste. It is used in soft drinks, instant tea and coffee.
It is sodium orthobenzene sulphonamide or its calcium salt. It is 300 times sweeter than sucrose. According to the WHO recommendation only 0 - 2.5 mg / kg body weight is permitted daily.
Natural Non-Caloric Sweeteners :
Neohespiridine dihydrochalcone - It is isolated from citrus peel.
Glycyrrhizin - It is obtained from roots of leguminous plant Glycyrrhiza glabra.
Thaumatin - It is obtained from a West African fruit
ROLE OF SUGAR IN COOKERY
1. It is used as a sweetening agent.
2. Used in the preparation of sugar syrup for sweets like gulab jamuns, fruit squashes.
3. It is a preservative in jams and jellies. High concentration of sugar prevents the growth of micro-organisms.
4. Sugar contributes to the flavour and colour of the product when it is caramelised.
5. It helps to improve texture of cake and confectionary.
It can be used to prepare sweets and candies.