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Chapter: 11th 12th std standard Class Nursing Health Care Hospital Hygiene Higher secondary school College Notes

Beverages and Appetizers

Beverages are drinks used for the purpose of relieving thirst and including fluid in the days diet. They contain nutrients and are also stimulants. Appetizers are those liquids that improve the appetite of an individual. Eg. Soups.


Beverages are drinks used for the purpose of relieving thirst and including fluid in the days diet. They contain nutrients and are also stimulants.


Appetizers are those liquids that improve the appetite of an individual. Eg. Soups.

Intake of appetizers before a meal tends to increase the quantity of food consumed and also stimulates a desire for food consumption.




1.  Refreshment :

Beverages such as plain or carbonated water, lime juice, ginger ale and other bottled beverages, fruit juices and iced tea or coffee are refreshing drinks and are used to relieve thirst.

2.  Nourishment :

Pasteurized milk, butter milk, chocolate and cocoa drinks, eggnog made with rum, fruit juices, glucose water, lemonade provide nutrients and help in nourishing the body.

3.  Stimulant :

Tea, coffee, cocoa and chocolate beverages help in stimulating the system.

4.  Soothing Agent:


Warm milk and hot tea have a soothing effect and are used for this purpose.

5.  Appetizers :


Soups, fruit juice and alcoholic drinks in limited quantities increase an individuals appetite and thereby food consumption.



Tea :

Tea is obtained from the leaves and flowers of tea bush. The kind of tea obtained is determined by the manufacturing process and treatment. Tea is a stimulating and refreshing drink.


The principle flavour components of tea are caffeine, tannin yielding compounds and small amounts of essential oils. Caffeine provides the stimulating effect, tannin the colour, body and taste to the extract and the essential oils contribute the characteristic aroma.


Tea can be prepared by introducing tea leaves into boiling water in a kettle or by pouring boiling water over tea leaves in a preheated tea pot and letting it steep.


The time of steeping depends on the strength of the beverage desired and quantity of tea leaves used. To prepare good tea one teaspoonful of tea leaves for 1 cup is ideal.


The tea should be brewed only for five minutes and strained. If it is kept for more than five minutes it will give a bitter taste. Milk and sugar should be added to individual taste.


Coffee is prepared from the beans of the coffee plant. Caffeine and flavouring substances such as tannins determine the quality of the end products.

Coffee can be prepared by filtration and percolation.



This is a very common method used in the preparation of coffee. A coffee filter is used for this purpose. Coffee powder is placed in the top part of the filter and covered with a disc, which is perforated.

Boiling water is poured over the coffee powder and it drift through it and extracts the flavour and aroma.

Percolation :


In this method the heated water is forced upward through a tube into the coffee compartment. When it filters through, it extracts the coffee flavour.

The water filters through the coffee several times before the desirable strength is obtained.

Instant coffee :


Instant coffee is prepared by pouring boiling water over instant coffee powder in a dry cup.

Cocoa And Chocolate:


Cocoa and chocolate are made from grinding the seeds of cocoa bean pods. Chocolate and cocoa unlike coffee and tea have a higher nutritive value.


The percentage nutritive value of chocolate and cocoa are given in the following table.

Percentage nutrient composition of cocoa and chocolate

Constituents        Cocoa         Chocolate

Water          4.6     5.9

Protein        21.9   12.9

Fat    28.6   48.7

Carbohydrates     32.7   30.0

Cocoa should always be mixed with a small amount of cold liquid before being combined with other ingredients. This prevents the formation of lumps.


It is then heated to boiling and held at that temperature to extract the flavour and reduce the amount of sediment that settles at the bottom.


Fruit Beverages :


Fruit beverages are obtained by extracting the juice from fruits such as orange, grape, pineapple, lemon, tomato etc.

These juices are an excellent source of vitamins, minerals and energy depending on the fruit used. Fruit juices are not only refreshing, they are nutritious, and increase fluid intake.


Fruit squashes are prepared by combining sugar syrup and fruit juice. They have a long shelf life and can be readily mixed with water to obtain an instant refreshing drink.

Fruit pulp can be combined with milk and sugar to form milk shakes e.g. apple, mango, sapota etc.


Milk Beverages :


Milk beverages are prepared by the addition of different flavours viz. strawberry, pista, cardamom and chocolate to milk.

They enhance the flavour of milk and thereby increase its consumption particularly by young children. Milk beverages are a good source of protein, calcium and vitamin A and B.


Milk shakes are prepared by mixing fruit pulp with milk and sugar. Milk can be mixed with egg to prepare egg nog which is a nourishing drink with a creamy consistency.


Carbonated non-alcoholic beverages are those beverages that are generally sweetened, flavoured, acidified and coloured.

The chief ingredient is water and this may be to the extent of 92 percent. The beverage contains 8 to 14 percent of sugar which contributes to the sweetness, calorie and body of the drink.

Artificial sweeteners such as saccharin is also used. Carbon dioxide is added to produce the tingling effect, sparkle and effervescence of carbonated beverages.


Nutritionally, it is an empty food since it provides only calories and no other nutrients. A bottle of an aerated beverage (180 ml) gives 70 kilo calories of energy.


Phosphoric acid, citric acid, fumaric acid and tartaric acid which are added to enhance the flavour, makes the drink acidic. It is therefore not recommended for patients suffering from acidity and ulcers. Saccharin which is a suspected carcinogen is also present in aerated drinks. Children should not be encouraged to consume carbonated beverages since they have no food value and depress the appetite.


Malted beverages are also known as Amylase Rich Foods (ARF). This is prepared by steeping whole grain like ragi or wheat in 2 - 3 times its volume of water.

The excess water is drained and the moist seed is germinated for 24 - 48 hours till sprouts appear. The grains are sun-dried and roasted to remove moisture. Sprouts are removed and the grains are milled and powdered.


The malt is cooked with water or milk to prepare a nutritious beverage.

ARF is rich in enzyme amylase. The germination process activates the enzymes of the resting grain and facilitates the conversion of cereal starch to fermentable sugars. Hydrolysis of cereal proteins also takes place.




Nera :

Nera is a sweet drink from the fresh sap of palm.

Tender Coconut Water :


This is a refreshing drink obtained from coconut. Potassium, ascorbic acid and many vitamins of the B group are present in coconut water. Apart from this, the water also contains traces of calcium, phosphorus and iron.

Sugarcane juice :


Sugarcane juice extracted from sugarcane contains 12 - 15 percent sugar. The cane juice is acidic and in addition to sugar contain minerals and vitamins such as the B - group.

Panakam :

Panakam is a traditional drink prepared using jaggery, ginger and cardamom.




Beer, ale, toddy, wine, whisky, gin and brandy are some of the commonly used alcoholic beverages. Alcoholic beverages are obtained by the enzymatic fermentation of yeast which converts glucose to alcohol.

Beer :


Beer is made by fermenting barley malt extract with yeast while ale is the same product with more stimulation.

Wine :


Wine  is  prepared  by  the  fermentation  of  grapes  with


Toddy :

This is prepared by fermenting the sap of palm, coconut, palymra or date palm.

Whisky :

It  is  an  alcoholic  distillate  from a  fermented  mash of


Gin :

It is an artificial drink from diluted pure ethyl alcohol.

Brandy :

This is made by fermenting fruit juices like grapes and


Alcohol is a narcotic, a drug and sedative. It is very rapidly absorbed in the body. Excessive consumption of alcohol causes damage to the liver, stomach and blood vessels.


It also leads to diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, cirrhosis of the liver and gastric ulcers.




Soups are prepared with vegetables, pulses, poultry and meat. The food which is to be used for making soup is cooked thoroughly in plenty of water. Clear soups are prepared using only the water in which the food is cooked while cream soups are prepared by adding milk and white sauce to the water.


Soups provide us with a variety of nutrients depending on the ingredients used. Soups also enhance appetite and add colour to the meal. It is usually served at the beginning of a meal.

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