NON ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES :
Tea is obtained from the leaves and
flowers of tea bush. The kind of tea obtained is determined by the manufacturing
process and treatment. Tea is a stimulating and refreshing drink.
The principle flavour components of tea are caffeine, tannin
yielding compounds and small amounts of essential oils. Caffeine provides the
stimulating effect, tannin the colour, body and taste to the extract and the
essential oils contribute the characteristic aroma.
Tea can be prepared by introducing
tea leaves into boiling water in a kettle or by pouring boiling water over tea
leaves in a preheated tea pot and letting it steep.
The time of steeping depends on the
strength of the beverage desired and quantity of tea leaves used. To prepare
good tea one teaspoonful of tea leaves for 1 cup is ideal.
The tea should be brewed only for
five minutes and strained. If it is kept for more than five minutes it will
give a bitter taste. Milk and sugar should be added to individual taste.
Coffee is prepared from the beans of
the coffee plant. Caffeine and flavouring substances such as tannins determine
the quality of the end products.
Coffee can be prepared by filtration and percolation.
This is a very common method used in the preparation of
coffee. A coffee filter is used for this purpose. Coffee powder is placed in
the top part of the filter and covered with a disc, which is perforated.
Boiling water is poured over the
coffee powder and it drift through it and extracts the flavour and aroma.
In this method the heated water is forced upward through a
tube into the coffee compartment. When it filters through, it extracts the
water filters through the coffee several times before the desirable strength is
Instant coffee :
Instant coffee is prepared by
pouring boiling water over instant coffee powder in a dry cup.
Cocoa And Chocolate:
Cocoa and chocolate are made from
grinding the seeds of cocoa bean pods. Chocolate and cocoa unlike coffee and
tea have a higher nutritive value.
The percentage nutritive value of
chocolate and cocoa are given in the following table.
nutrient composition of cocoa and chocolate
Constituents Cocoa Chocolate
Water 4.6 5.9
Protein 21.9 12.9
Fat 28.6 48.7
Carbohydrates 32.7 30.0
Cocoa should always be mixed with a small amount of cold
liquid before being combined with other ingredients. This prevents the
formation of lumps.
It is then heated to boiling and
held at that temperature to extract the flavour and reduce the amount of
sediment that settles at the bottom.
Fruit Beverages :
Fruit beverages are obtained by extracting the juice from
fruits such as orange, grape, pineapple, lemon, tomato etc.
These juices are an excellent source
of vitamins, minerals and energy depending on the fruit used. Fruit juices are
not only refreshing, they are nutritious, and increase fluid intake.
Fruit squashes are prepared by combining sugar syrup and
fruit juice. They have a long shelf life and can be readily mixed with water to
obtain an instant refreshing drink.
Fruit pulp can be combined with milk and sugar to form milk
shakes e.g. apple, mango, sapota etc.
Milk Beverages :
Milk beverages are prepared by the
addition of different flavours viz. strawberry, pista, cardamom and chocolate
They enhance the flavour of milk and
thereby increase its consumption particularly by young children. Milk beverages
are a good source of protein, calcium and vitamin A and B.
Milk shakes are prepared by mixing fruit pulp with
milk and sugar. Milk can be mixed with egg to prepare egg nog which is a
nourishing drink with a creamy consistency.