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Non-Budgetary Control Techniques
There are, of course, many traditional control devices not connected with budgets, although some may be related to, and used with, budgetary controls. Among the most important of these are statistical data, special reports and analysis, analysis of break- even points, the operational audit, and the personal observation.
1 Statistical data:
Statistical analyses of innumerable aspects of a business operation and the clear presentation of statistical data, whether of a historical or forecast nature are, of course, important to control. Some managers can readily interpret tabular statistical data, but most managers prefer presentation of the data on charts.
2 Break- even point analysis:
An interesting control device is the break even chart. This chart depicts the relationship of sales and expenses in such a way as to show at what volume revenues exactly cover expenses.
3 Operational audit:
Another effective tool of managerial control is the internal audit or, as it is now coming to be called, the operational audit. Operational auditing, in its broadest sense, is the regular and independent appraisal, by a staff of internal auditors, of the accounting, financial, and other operations of a business.
4 Personal observation:
In any preoccupation with the devices of managerial control, one should never overlook the importance of control through personal observation.
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