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Budgetary Control is defined as "the establishment of budgets, relating the responsibilities of executives to the requirements of a policy, and the continuous comparison of actual with budgeted results either to secure by individual action the objective of that policy or to provide a base for its revision.
ü Objectives: Determining the objectives to be achieved, over the budget period, and the policy that might be adopted for the achievement of these ends.
ü Activities: Determining the variety of activities that should be undertaken for achievement of the objectives.
ü Plans: Drawing up a plan or a scheme of operation in respect of each class of activity, in physical a well as monetary terms for the full budget period and its parts.
ü Performance Evaluation: Laying out a system of comparison of actual performance by each person section or department with the relevant budget and determination of causes for the discrepancies, if any. Control
ü Action: Ensuring that when the plans are not achieved, corrective actions are taken; and when corrective actions are not possible, ensuring that the plans are revised and objective achieved.
Budgetary Control Techniques
1 Revenue and Expense Budgets:
The revenue from sales of products or services furnishes the principal income to pay operating expenses and yield profits. Expense budgets may deal with individual items of expense, such as travel, data processing, entertainment, advertising, telephone, and insurance.
2 Time, Space, Material, and Product Budgets:
Many budgets are better expressed in quantities rather than in monetary terms. e.g. direct-labor-hours, machine-hours, units of materials, square feet allocated, and units produced. The Rupee cost would not accurately measure the resources used or the results intended.
3 Capital Expenditure Budgets:
Capital expenditure budgets outline specifically capital expenditures for plant, machinery, equipment, inventories, and other items. These budgets require care because they give definite form to plans for spending the funds of an enterprise.
4 Cash Budgets:
The cash budget is simply a forecast of cash receipts and disbursements against which actual cash "experience" is measured. The availability of cash to meet obligations as they fall due is the first requirement of existence, and handsome business profits do little good when tied up in inventory, machinery, or other noncash assets.
5 Variable Budget:
The variable budget is based on an analysis of expense items to determine how individual costs should vary with volume of output. Some costs do not vary with volume, particularly in so short a period as 1 month, 6months, or a year. Among these are depreciation, property taxes and insurance, maintenance of plant and equipment, and costs of keeping a minimum staff of supervisory and other key personnel.
6 Zero Based Budget:
The idea behind this technique is to divide enterprise programs into "packages"composed of goals, activities, and needed resources and then to calculate costs for each package from the ground up. By starting the budget of each package from base zero, budgeters calculate costs afresh for each budget period; thus they avoid the common tendency in budgeting of looking only at changes from a previous period.
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