National Health Programmes
After independence of our nation, the National Health Programmes are launched by the Central Government for the control/ eradication of the communicable diseases, improvement of environmental sanitation, improving the standard of nutrition, control of population and promotion of rural health. Various International agencies have been providing technical and material assistance in the implementation of these programmes.
· National Health Mission
· Reproductive And Child Health Programs
· Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP) : DOTS Strategy
· National AIDS Control Program
· National Vector Borne Disease Control Program
· Nutritional Programs
· National Anti-Tobacco Program
· National Program For Prevention And Control Of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardio vascular Diseases And Stroke
· Integrated Disease Surveillance Project
· Basic Minimum Service Program
· Programs For Water And Sanitation
1. Nation Health Mission (NRHM and NUHM)
National Health Mission is a strategic plan of central health ministry to strengthen the health systems in rural and urban areas National Health Rural Mission was launched in 2005 for strengthening health systems and provide better rural health Services. It was converted to National Health mission in 2013.
It is provided under 2 sub - missions
NRHM - National Rural Health Mission was launched in 2005 to provide health care to the remote rural population.
NUHM - To meet the health care needs of the urban population with the focus on urban poor.
Goals of NHM
· Reduction in Maternal Mortality Rate and Infant Mortality Rate
· Universal access to integrated public health services
· Child health, water, sanitation and hygiene
· Prevention and control of Communicable and noncommunicable deseases including locally endemic diseases and emerging diseases
· Population stabilization
· Revitalize Indigenous System of Medicine
Functions of NHM
· Antenatal and postnatal check up
· Improved facilities for Institutional deliveries
· Trained commuity level worker
· Complete Immunization
· Good Hospital care
· Provision of household toilets
· Mobile Medical units
· Health and Nutrition
2. National Malaria Eradication Programme:
The National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) was launched in 1953 which was upgraded to National Eradication Programme (NMEP) in 1958. The NMEP achieved remarkable success during the period 1958-1965, by which the incidence of Malaria came down to only 1lakh cases and no deaths in 1965. In 1994 Resurgence of malaria forced Govt. of India to appoint an Expert committee on Malaria to identify the problem areas and specific control measures. Thus the Malaria Action Programme (MAP) was evolved and is being implemented. The objective of the MAP is to prevent deaths, outbreaks and complications due to Malaria. It has been decided to observe Anti Malaria Month before the onset of monsoon i.e. month of June every year.
3. National Tuberculosis Control Programme:
The National Tuberculosis Control Programme was established in 1962 with the objective of reducing the disability and death from TB by effective treatment. The Govt. of India, WHO and world Bank together reviewed the NTP in 1992. Based on the findings a revised strategy for NTP was evolved. Short term chemotherapy has been introduced in 5 districts to achieve at least 85% cure rate through DOTS (Direct Observation Treatment Short course). It is done by voluntary workers such as teachers, anganwadi workers, dais, ex-patients and social workers. NGOs are involved in Information, Education and Communication.
4. National Aids Control Programme:
National AIDS Control Program was launched in India in the year 1987 is to prevent further transmission of HIV, to decrease morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection and to minimize the socio economic impact resulting from HIV infection.
5. National Family Welfare Programme
Family planning was started in the year 1951. In 1977, the Govt. of India re-designated National Family Planning into National Family Welfare Programme and was integrated with Mother and Child Health services. The aim of family welfare programme is to improve the quality of life through education, nutrition, health, employment, women's welfare and rights, shelter, safe drinking water and all factors vital to the life.
6. Universal Immunization Programme (UIP)
UIP is a vaccination programme launched by the Govt. of India in 1985. Currently UIP is one of the key areas under NRHM (National Rural Health Mission) since 2005. It consists of vaccination against 12 diseases namely Tuberculosis, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Polio, Measles, Hepatitis B, Japanese Encephalitis, Rubella Pneumonia and Pneumococcal diseases. Immunization is one of the most effective methods of preventing childhood diseases. With the implementation of the Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) by the Government of India, significant achievements have been made in preventing and controlling vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). Introduction of Pentavalent vaccine (pilot project in Tamil Nadu)will further reduce the incidence of pneumonia and meningitis caused by Haemophilus, influenza type b (Hib) bacteria.
7. National Diarrheal Diseases Control Programme
Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of child mortality. National diarrheal disease control programme was launched in the year of 1978. It was actually a renamed version of national cholera control programme. The programme emphasized on the use of Oral rehydration Salt (ORS) therapy. It also focussed on the rational use of medications, adequate nutritional and fluid replacements during diarrhea, education on personal hygiene, feeding practices among the mothers of under five.
8. National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme
National Goitre Control Programme was launched in the year of 1963 with the objectives of reducing the incidence and prevalence of goitre in the country. Goitre is a condition occurs due to the lack of iodine in the blood. Iodine cannot be supplemented by any foods. Even after 20 years of measures, it was found that the prevalence of goitre was high. Hence the programme was renamed as Iodine Defeciency Disorder Control Programme in 1992 and enforced on the fortification of iodine in salts at the manufacturing level.
9. National Leprosy Control Programme
The programme was launched in the year of 1955. In 1983 it was renamed into National Leprosy Eradication Programme. The main objectives of the programme are to reduce the leprosy cases, early detection and treat the known cases with effective multi drug therapy.
Types of units functioning in the country
· National Leprosy Control Units are established in highly endemic areas.
· Survey, Education and Treatment (SET) Centers attached to Primary Health centers.
10. National Cancer Control Programme
National Cancer Control
Programme(NCCP) is a community health programme designed to reduce the number of cancer cases and deaths and improve quality of life of cancer patients. NCCP helps to reduce the cancer burden and improve services for cancer patients and their families. The National Cancer Control Programme was launched in the year1975 - 76.
11. National Mental Health Programme
The Mental Health programme was launched during 1992 with a view to ensure availability of Mental Health Services for all, especially the community at risk and under privileged section of the population.
12. Respiratory Disease Control Programme
The standard case management of ARI and prevention of death due to pneumonia is an integral part of RCH programme. Peripheral health workers are being trained to recognize and treat pneumonia with Co-trimoxazaole.
13. Nutritional Programmes
The Govt. of India have initiated several nutritional programmes to combat malnutrition. ICDS, Vit. A prophylaxis programme, Prophylaxis against Nutritional Anemia, Special Nutrition Programme, Mid-day Meal Programme, Special Nutrition Programme are sum ofthe nutritional programmes.
14. Reproductive and Child Health Programme (RCH):