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Chapter: 11th Zoology : Chapter 8 : Excretion


The process of release of urine from the bladder is called micturition or urination.



The process of release of urine from the bladder is called micturition or urination. Urine formed by the nephrons is ultimately carried to the urinary bladder where it is stored till it receives a voluntary signal from the central nervous system. The stretch receptors present in the urinary bladder are stimulated when it gets filled with urine. Stretching of the urinary bladder stimulates the CNS via the sensory neurons of the parasympathetic nervous system and brings about contraction of the bladder. Simultaneously, somatic motor neurons induce the sphincters to close. Smooth muscles contracts resulting in the opening of the internal sphincters passively and relaxing the external sphincter. When the stimulatory and inhibitory controls exceed the threshold, the sphincter opens and the urine is expelled out.


An adult human on an average excretes 1 to 1.5 L of urine per day. The urine formed is a yellow coloured watery fluid which is slightly acidic in nature (pH 6.0), Changes in diet may cause pH to vary between 4.5 to 8.0 and has a characteristic odour. The yellow colour of the urine is due to the presence of a pigment, urochrome. On an average, 25- 30 gms of urea is excreted per day. Various metabolic disorders can affect the composition of urine. Analysis of urine helps in clinical diagnosis of various metabolic disorders and the malfunctioning of the kidneys. For example the presence of glucose (glucosuria) and ketone bodies (ketonuria) in the urine are indications of diabetes mellitus.


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11th Zoology : Chapter 8 : Excretion : Micturition |

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