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The Math class contains all the floating-point functions that are used for geometry and trigonometry, as well as several general-purpose methods.

**Math**

The **Math** class contains all the floating-point functions that are used
for geometry and trigonometry, as well as several general-purpose methods. **Math** defines two **double** constants: **E**
(approximately 2.72) and **PI**
(approximately 3.14).

**Trigonometric
Functions**

The following methods accept
a **double** parameter for an angle in
radians and return the result of their respective trigonometric function:

Method : Description

static double sin(double arg) : Returns the
sine of the angle specified by arg in radians.

static double cos(double arg) : Returns the
cosine of the angle specified by arg in radians.

static double tan(double arg) : Returns the
tangent of the angle specified by arg in radians.

The next methods take as a parameter the result
of a trigonometric function and return, in radians, the angle that would
produce that result. They are the inverse of their non-arc companions.

Method : Description

static double asin(double arg) : Returns the
angle whose sine is specified by arg.

static double acos(double arg) : Returns the
angle whose cosine is specified by arg.

static double atan(double arg) : Returns the
angle whose tangent is specified by arg.

static double atan2(double x, double y) :
Returns the angle whose tangent is x/y.

The next methods compute the hyperbolic sine,
cosine, and tangent of an angle:

Method : Description

static double sinh(double arg) : Returns the
hyperbolic sine of the angle specified by arg.

static double cosh(double arg) : Returns the
hyperbolic cosine of the angle specified by arg.

static double tanh(double arg) : Returns the
hyperbolic tangent of the angle specified by arg.

**Exponential
Functions**

**Math **defines the following exponential methods:

**Rounding
Functions**

The **Math** class defines several methods that provide various types of
rounding operations. They are shown in Table 17-16. Notice the two **ulp( )** methods at the end of the table.
In this context, *ulp* stands for *units in the last place*. It indicates
the distance between a value and the next higher value. It can be used to help
assess the accuracy of a result.

**Miscellaneous
Math Methods**

In addition to the methods
just shown, **Math** defines several
other methods, which are shown in Table 17-17. Notice that several of the
methods use the suffix **Exact**. These
were added by JDK 8. They throw an **ArithmeticException**
if overflow occurs. Thus, these methods give you an easy way to watch various
operations for overflow.

The following program
demonstrates **toRadians( )** and **toDegrees( )**:

// Demonstrate toDegrees() and toRadians().

class Angles {

public static void main(String args[]) { double
theta = 120.0;

System.out.println(theta + " degrees is
" + Math.toRadians(theta) + " radians.");

theta = 1.312;

System.out.println(theta + " radians is
" + Math.toDegrees(theta) + " degrees.");

}

}

The output is shown here:

120.0 degrees is 2.0943951023931953 radians.

1.312 radians is 75.17206272116401 degrees.

**StrictMath**

The **StrictMath** class defines a complete set of mathematical methods that parallel those in **Math**. The difference is that the **StrictMath** version is guaranteed to generate precisely identical results across all Java implementations, whereas the methods in **Math** are given more latitude in order to improve performance.

**Compiler**

The **Compiler** class supports the creation of Java environments in which Java bytecode is compiled into executable code rather than interpreted. It is not for normal programming use.

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