The lexical analyzer scans the characters of the source program one a t a time to discover tokens. Often, however, many characters beyond the next token many have to be examined before the next token itself can be determined. For this and other reasons, it is desirable for the lexical analyzer to read its input from an input buffer. Fig. 1.9 shows a buffer divided into two halves of, say 100 characters each. One pointer marks the beginning of the token being discovered. A look ahead pointer scans ahead of the beginning point, until the token is discovered .we view the position of each pointer as being between the character last read and the character next to be read. In practice each buffering scheme adopts one convention either a pointer is at the symbol last read or the symbol it is ready to read.
The distance which the lookahead pointer may have to travel past the actual token may be large. For example, in a PL/I program we may see:
DECLARE (ARG1, ARG2… ARG n)
Without knowing whether DECLARE is a keyword or an array name until we see the character that follows the right parenthesis. In either case, the token itself ends at the second E. If the look ahead pointer travels beyond the buffer half in which it began, the other half must be loaded with the next characters from the source file.
Since the buffer shown in above figure is of limited size there is an implied constraint on how much look ahead can be used before the next token is discovered. In the above example, if the look ahead traveled to the left half and all the way through the left half to the middle, we could not reload the right half, because we would lose characters that had not yet been grouped into tokens. While we can make the buffer larger if we chose or use another buffering scheme, we cannot ignore the fact that overhead is limited.
· A buffer is divided into two N-character halves, as shown below
Fig. 1.9 An input buffer in two halves
Each buffer is of the same size N, and N is usually the number of characters on one block. E.g., 1024 or 4096 bytes.
· Using one system read command we can read N characters into a buffer.
· If fewer than N characters remain in the input file, then a special character, represented by eof, marks the end of the source file.
· Two pointers to the input are maintained:
1. Pointer lexeme_beginning, marks the beginning of the current lexeme, whose extent we are attempting to determine.
2.Pointer forward scans ahead until a pattern match is found.
Once the next lexeme is determined, forward is set to the character at its right end.
· The string of characters between the two pointers is the current lexeme.
After the lexeme is recorded as an attribute value of a token returned to the parser, lexeme_beginning is set to the character immediately after the lexeme just found.
Advancing forward pointer:
Advancing forward pointer requires that we first test whether we have reached the end of one of the buffers, and if so, we must reload the other buffer from the input, and move forward to the beginning of the newly loaded buffer. If the end of second buffer is reached, we must again reload the first buffer with input and the pointer wraps to the beginning of the buffer.
Code to advance forward pointer: if forward at end
of first half then begin reload second half;
forward := forward + 1 end
else if forward at end of second half then begin reload second half;
move forward to beginning of first half end
else forward := forward + 1;
For each character read, we make two tests: one for the end of the buffer, and one to determine what character is read. We can combine the buffer-end test with the test for the current character if we extend each buffer to hold a sentinel character at the end.
The sentinel is a special character that cannot be part of the source program, and a natural choice is the character eof.
The sentinel arrangement is as shown below:
: : E : : = : : M : * : eof C : * : : * : 2 : eof : : : eof
Fig. 1.10 Sentinels at end of each buffer half
Note that eof retains its use as a marker for the end of the entire input. Any eof that appears other than at the end of a buffer means that the input is at an end.
Code to advance forward pointer: forward : = forward + 1;
if forward ↑ = eof then begin
if forward at end of first half then begin reload second half; forward := forward +
else if forward at end of second half then begin reload first half;
move forward to beginning of first half end
else /* eof within a buffer signifying end of input */ terminate lexical analysis
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