Infertility is defined as the inability to conceive and carry a pregnancy to viability after at least 1 year of regular sexual intercourse with out contraception.
Primary infertility- is an inability to conceive and carry a pregnancy to viability with no previous history of pregnancy carried to alive birth.
Secondary infertility- is an inability to conceive and carry a pregnancy to alive birth following one or more successful pregnancies.
Although often used interchangeably the term infertility and sterility are not synonymous. Sterility denotes a total and irreversible inability to conceive. Broadly defined infertility includes the inability to carry a pregnancy to viability.
· Vaginal - abnormalities
- highly acidic vaginal PH
· Cervical - Hostile environment (insufficient oestrogen or infection)
- Incompetent cervix
- Hostile environmental for implantation and survival of blastocyst
- Scar tissue due to PID
· Ovarian - an ovulation
- Irregular or infrequent ovulation
- Secretary dysfunction
- Inadequate luteal phase
· Anatomical abnormalities / congenital factor
· Inadequate sperm production / Maturation
· Testicular inflammation
· Heat exposure
· Sexually transmitted disease
· Radiation exposure
· Certain drugs
· Inadequate motility of sperm
· Blockage of sperm in male reproductive tract
· History and physical examination
· Semen analysis
· The postcoital test
· Basal body temperature recording
· Serum progesterone test
· Endometrial Biopsy
· Laparoscopy and culdoscopy
Treatment- On a diagnosis of the cause of the infertility, it hasbeen made to involve the male partner, the female partner, or both may be initiated.